The Maternal Genetic Lineages of Ashkenazic Jews

by Kevin Alan Brook

Click here to 
order The Maternal Genetic Lineages of Ashkenazic Jews This book presents up-to-date information on the origins of the Ashkenazic Jewish people from central and eastern Europe based on genetic research on modern and pre-modern populations. It focuses on the 127 maternal (mtDNA) haplogroups that the author confirmed that Ashkenazim have acquired from distinct female ancestors who were indigenous to diverse lands that include Israel, Italy, Poland, Germany, North Africa, and China, revealing both their Israelite inheritance and the lasting legacy of conversions to Judaism.

Genetic connections between Ashkenazic Jews and other Jewish populations, including Turkish Jews, Moroccan Jews, Tunisian Jews, Iranian Jews, and Cochin Jews, are indicated wherever they are known.

Each maternal haplogroup originated from a distinct woman who joined the Ashkenazic community. Some of these women were Judeans, some were Slavs, a few were Berbers, and several may have been Greeks—and those weren't their only origins.

Multiple Ashkenazic maternal and paternal haplogroups most likely came from Khazar and Alan converts to Judaism in medieval Khazaria. See the evidence on pages 7, 16-17, 52, and 85-86.

Two of the maternal haplogroups discussed in this book (H2a1e1a and U5a1d2b) were discovered to exist in Ashkenazim by the author and were not in any previous work about Ashkenazim.

Peer-reviewed by three professional historians and two professional geneticists. Includes bibliography (pages 183-200) and index.


Published by Academic Studies Press of Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
1st printing: October 2022, hardcover, xii + 209 pages, ISBN 9781644699836
2nd printing: October 2022, paperback, xii + 209 pages, ISBN 9781644699843
Electronic editions: ISBNs 9781644699850 and 9781644699867


"The book ... conveys to the citizen-scientist an encyclopedic reference combining a comprehensive wealth of DNA sequence signatures collated from seminal scientific publications and genealogy databases to trace shared maternal ancestral lineages of contemporary Ashkenazic Jews. A major attraction is the way in which Kevin Alan Brook couples the lineage moniker with carefully investigated community historical information. This allows the interested reader to fit his/her affiliation within the relevant demographic tapestry. The numerous upheavals that characterized the origins and history of Ashkenazic Jews are related to the catalogued DNA sequence patterns. Recent scientific reports of genomic DNA sequence data, including mitochondrial DNA from remains at a medieval Jewish burial site [in Erfurt, Germany], add further credence to the patterns elucidated in Kevin Alan Brook's tour de force."
      — Karl Skorecki, Professor and Dean of the Azrieli Faculty of Medicine, Bar-Ilan University, a co-author of many scientific papers on Jewish DNA including "The Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People" (2010) and "Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora" (2008)

"[A] most valuable resource for further reference regarding the Ashkenazi mitochondrial lineages."
      — Toomas Kivisild, Professor in the Department of Human Genetics and Head of the Laboratory for Human Evolutionary Genetics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, a co-author of multiple scientific papers on Jewish DNA including "The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event" (2006) and "Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora" (2008)

"I... found it very informative."
      — Peter B. Golden, Professor Emeritus of History,Ā Rutgers University

"Chapter 2 includes an analysis of each Ashkenazic mitochondrial haplogroup along with its geographic origins, ethnic distributions, phylogenetic trees, and mutations. ... For those unfamiliar with Ashkenazic maternal lineages, the conclusion in chapter 4 is a good place to begin. ... This book would be a fine addition for anyone studying Ashkenazic maternal lines."
      — Lana Leggett-Kealey, professional genetic genealogist with a Certificate in Genealogical Research from Boston University, in National Genealogical Society Quarterly 111:4 (December 2023 issue), pages 317-318



CHAPTER 1. An Introduction to Ashkenazic History and Genetics
Early settlements, migrations, and subgroups • An overview of Ashkenazic autosomal DNA and Y-DNA • Conversions to Judaism and intermarriages between Jewish men and non-Israelite women in Western Jewish communities

CHAPTER 2. Encyclopedia of Ashkenazic Maternal Lineages
(A12'23, H1b, H1b1a, H1b2a, H1e4, H1e4a, H1f, H1u2, H1ai1, H1aj1, H1aj1a, H1as2, H1ax, H1bd, H1bo, H1bw, H2a1e1a, H2a2b1, H3, H3p, H3w, H3ap, H4a1a1, H4a1a1a, H4a1a3a, H5, H5-C16192T, H5-T16311C!, H5a1, H5a7, H5c2, H6a1a1a, H6a1a3, H6a1a5, H6a1b2, H6a1b3, H7c2, H7e, H7j, H10a1b, H11a1, H11a2a2, H11b1, H13a1a1, H13a1a1a, H15b, H25, H26c, H40b, H41a, H47, H56, H65a, HV0-T195C!, HV1a'b'c, HV1b2, HV5, HV5a, I1c1a, I5a1b, J1b1a1, J1c-C16261T, J1c1, J1c3e2, J1c4, J1c5, J1c7a, J1c13, J1c14, J2b1e, K1a1b1, K1a1b1a, K1a4a, K1a9, K2a, K2a2a1, L2a1l2a, M1a1b1c, M33c, N1b1a2, N1b1b1, N1b2 [see ERRATA below], N9a3, R0a2m, R0a4, T1a, T1a1, T1a1b, T1a1j, T1a1k1, T1b [see ERRATA below], T1b3, T2a1, T2a1b, T2b3-C151T, T2b4, T2b4a, T2b16, T2b25, T2e1b, T2g1a, U1b1, U2e1a1, U3a1, U3a1a, U4a3a, U5a1a2a, U5a1b, U5a1b1, U5a1b1c2, U5a1d2b, U5a1f1a, U5a2b2a, U5b1b1-T16192C!, U5b1e1, U5b2a1a, U6a7a1b, U7a5, U8b1b1, V1a1, V7a, V7b, V15, V18a, W1h, W3a1a1, W3b1, X2b7, and X2e2a)

CHAPTER 3. Non-Ashkenazic Haplogroups in Populations Related to Ashkenazim
(Moroccan Jewish, Algerian Jewish, Libyan Jewish, Tunisian Jewish, Sephardic Jewish, Romaniote Jewish, Syrian Jewish, Egyptian Jewish, Iranian Jewish, Mountain Jewish, Georgian Jewish, Iraqi Jewish, Bukharan Jewish, Yemenite Jewish, Cochin Jewish, Bene Israel Jewish, Krymchak, Crimean Karaite, Chueta, Bragança Crypto-Jewish, Belmonte Crypto-Jewish, Polish, German, Italian, Greek, Lebanese, Samaritan, ancient Israel)

CHAPTER 4. Conclusion

About the Author


The N1b2 entry was included due to Family Tree DNA's failure to update the haplogroup assignment of several Ashkenazic customers to the latest build of the Phylotree. Their mutations show they are actually in what the Phylotree currently calls N1b1b1, which the Phylotree previously called N1b2. The haplogroup that the latest Phylotree calls N1b2 doesn't actually exist in Ashkenazim but this error was discovered after the publication of the first edition.

Also discovered too late is that Family Tree DNA failed to upgrade the haplogroup assignment of multiple Ashkenazim from T1b into its branch T1b3 even though they do carry the T1b3-defining mutation C15853T in their Coding Region.


GenBank accession numbers OQ732365 (N9a3a1b1 Ashkenazi from Rajgród, Poland), OQ732687 (K1a4a2a1 Ashkenazi from Heldenbergen, Germany), OQ732697 (A-a1b3a1 Ashkenazi from Przyrów, Poland), OQ743418 (H5-a1a Ashkenazi from Grajewo, Poland), OQ830679 (R0a2m Ashkenazi from Usov, Czechia), OQ835717 (U1b1a1 Ashkenazi from Romania), OQ850128 (X2b7a Ashkenazi from Warsaw, Poland), OQ870073 (R0a4a Ashkenazi from Lithuania), OQ870309 (H10a1b1a Ashkenazi from Dnipro, Ukraine), OQ889551 (U4a3a4 Ashkenazi from Bilozirka, Ukraine), OQ908857 (H7c2 Ashkenazi from Khmilnyk, Ukraine), OQ909539 (H26c2a Ashkenazi from Davyd-Haradok, Belarus), OQ939663 (U2e1a1d Ashkenazi from Starokostyantyniv, Ukraine), OQ981915 (H15b6 Ashkenazi from Slovakia), OQ987896 (R0a2m2 Ashkenazi from Poland), OR023597 (H40b1 Ashkenazi from Ladyzhyn, Ukraine), OR023598 (J1b1a1j Ashkenazi from Odessa, Ukraine), OR062594 (H3bo2 Ashkenazi from Kaunas, Lithuania), OR062595 (U5b1b1-b Ashkenazi from Trzcianne, Poland), OR066412 (K2a Ashkenazi from Sokółka, Gmina Sokółka, Poland), OR085840 (J1c-a pre-J1c14 Ashkenazi from Będzin, Poland), OR088594 (T1a1b-a Ashkenazi from Szeged, Hungary), OR088595 (J1c14 Ashkenazi from Monastyryshche, Ukraine), OR088596 (H15b6 Ashkenazi from Tokaj, Hungary), OR100633 (H5c2 Ashkenazi from Makó, Hungary), OR137129 (U5a1b1q Ashkenazi from Staszów, Gmina Staszów, Poland), OR148033 (H5-c1 Ashkenazi from Botoșani, Romania), OR159678 (HV1a'b'c3b Ashkenazi from Zaręby Kościelne, Poland), OR166265 (V15 Ashkenazi from Rudno, Gmina Michów, Poland), OR182493 (I1c1a1 Ashkenazi from Tiszaszentimre, Hungary), OR247662 (T1b3d Ashkenazi from Hrodna, Belarus), OR248791 (N1b1b1 Ashkenazi), OR285359 (J1c7a5 Ashkenazi from Vilnius, Lithuania), OR347873 (U1b1a1 Ashkenazi from Sharashova, Belarus), OR364718 (W3b1 Ashkenazi from Warsaw, Poland), OR365506 (U1b1a1 Ashkenazi from Chavusy, Belarus), OR365507 (T1a16 Ashkenazi from Heidingsfeld, Würzburg, Germany), OR365664 (J2b1e2 Ashkenazi from Budapest, Hungary), OR397172 (H1aj1a Ashkenazi), OR401348 (H25 Ashkenazi from Klishkivtsi, Ukraine), OR420727 (H1aj1a Ashkenazi from Vienna, Austria), OR420728 (H11a2a2d Ashkenazi from Berezhnytsia, Ukraine), OR432697 (W1h3 Ashkenazi from Lyady, Dubrovienski Raion, Belarus), OR449223 (U7a5 Ashkenazi from Kłobuck, Poland), OR454463 (T2b16 Ashkenazi from Ostroh, Ukraine), OR459624 (V7b1 Ashkenazi from Kryvichy, Belarus), OR460854 (H3w1 Ashkenazi from Lithuania), OR468127 (H1aj1 pre-H1aj1a Ashkenazi from Vištytis, Lithuania), OR482141 (H3w1 Ashkenazi from Lithuania), OR494553 (T1a1j Ashkenazi from Miliyeve, Ukraine), OR552417 (T2a1b4a1 Ashkenazi from Latkivtsi, Ukraine), OR557276 (T2b25b Ashkenazi from Chocz, Poland), OR567879 (H1b2a Ashkenazi), OR575205 (J1c13 Ashkenazi from Dorobratovo, Zakarpattia Oblast, Ukraine), OR578731 (H1bw2a Ashkenazi), OR652292 (H2a2b1 Ashkenazi from Ukraine), OR713902 (H1u2c Ashkenazi from Kyiv, Ukraine), OR724953 (H2a1e1a2 Ashkenazi from Rîșcani, Raionul Rîșcani, Moldova), OR731867 (T2b25b Ashkenazi from Stryków, Gmina Stryków, Poland), OR773096 (HV0-a Ashkenazi), OR780761 (H1e4 Ashkenazi from Lithuania), OR785802 (V15 Ashkenazi from Mraznytsia, Boryslav, Ukraine), OR792395 (H65a Ashkenazi from Novozybkov, Bryansk Oblast, Russia), OR803751 (V7a2c1b1 Ashkenazi from Dynów, Poland), OR807011 (H56 Ashkenazi from Akmenė, Lithuania), OR807012 (H11a2a2d Ashkenazi from Białystok, Poland), OR811109 (J1c4-a9 Ashkenazi from Würzburg, Germany), OR838477 (H6a1b3 Ashkenazi from Szamotuły, Poland), OR907195 (T1a1k1 Ashkenazi from Rzeszów, Poland), PP048942 (H1ax2 Ashkenazi from Kamyanyets, Belarus), PP066031 (H1bo Ashkenazi from Ostrów Mazowiecka, Poland), PP070545 (J1c1l1 Ashkenazi from Iași, Județul Iași, Romania), PP081665 (H41a1b Ashkenazi from Rivne, Rivne Oblast, Ukraine), PP155072 (J1c1l1 Ashkenazi from Vitsyebsk, Belarus), PP278988 (K1a9d Ashkenazi from Kiskőrös, Hungary), PP616712 (U5b1e1 Ashkenazi from Vilnius, Lithuania), PP711349 (J1c3e2c1 Ashkenazi from Lithuania), PP786235 (J1c3e2c1a Ashkenazi from Staryi Ostropil, Ukraine), PP796392 (J1c3e2c1a Ashkenazi from Odessa, Ukraine), PP860868 (T2b4-a5 Ashkenazi from Vilnius, Lithuania).

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The author's other book of related interest:
The Jews of Khazaria by Kevin Alan Brook