The Maternal Genetic Lineages of Ashkenazic Jews

by Kevin Alan Brook

Click here to 
order The Maternal Genetic Lineages of Ashkenazic Jews This book presents up-to-date information on the origins of the Ashkenazic Jewish people from central and eastern Europe based on genetic research on modern and pre-modern populations. It focuses on the 129 maternal (mtDNA) haplogroups that the author confirmed that Ashkenazim have acquired from distinct female ancestors who were indigenous to diverse lands that include Israel, Italy, Poland, Germany, North Africa, and China, revealing both their Israelite inheritance and the lasting legacy of conversions to Judaism.

Genetic connections between Ashkenazic Jews and other Jewish populations, including Turkish Jews, Moroccan Jews, Tunisian Jews, Iranian Jews, and Cochin Jews, are indicated wherever they are known.

Each maternal haplogroup originated from a distinct woman who joined the Ashkenazic community. Some of these women were Judeans, some were Slavs, a few were Berbers, and several may have been Greeks—and those weren't their only origins.

Multiple Ashkenazic maternal and paternal haplogroups most likely came from Khazar and Alan converts to Judaism in medieval Khazaria. See the evidence on pages 7, 16-17, 52, and 85-86.

Two of the maternal haplogroups discussed in this book (H2a1e1a and U5a1d2b) were discovered to exist in Ashkenazim by the author and were not in any previous work about Ashkenazim.

Peer-reviewed by three professional historians and two professional geneticists. Includes bibliography (pages 183-200) and index.


Published by Academic Studies Press of Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
1st printing: October 2022, hardcover, xii + 209 pages, ISBN 9781644699836
2nd printing: October 2022, paperback, xii + 209 pages, ISBN 9781644699843
Electronic editions: ISBNs 9781644699850 and 9781644699867


"The book ... conveys to the citizen-scientist an encyclopedic reference combining a comprehensive wealth of DNA sequence signatures collated from seminal scientific publications and genealogy databases to trace shared maternal ancestral lineages of contemporary Ashkenazic Jews. A major attraction is the way in which Kevin Alan Brook couples the lineage moniker with carefully investigated community historical information. This allows the interested reader to fit his/her affiliation within the relevant demographic tapestry. The numerous upheavals that characterized the origins and history of Ashkenazic Jews are related to the catalogued DNA sequence patterns. Recent scientific reports of genomic DNA sequence data, including mitochondrial DNA from remains at a medieval Jewish burial site [in Erfurt, Germany], add further credence to the patterns elucidated in Kevin Alan Brook's tour de force."
      — Karl Skorecki, Professor and Dean of the Azrieli Faculty of Medicine, Bar-Ilan University, a co-author of many scientific papers on Jewish DNA including "The Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People" (2010) and "Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora" (2008)

"[A] most valuable resource for further reference regarding the Ashkenazi mitochondrial lineages."
      — Toomas Kivisild, Professor in the Department of Human Genetics and Head of the Laboratory for Human Evolutionary Genetics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, a co-author of multiple scientific papers on Jewish DNA including "The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event" (2006) and "Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora" (2008)

"I... found it very informative."
      — Peter B. Golden, Professor Emeritus of History,Ā Rutgers University



CHAPTER 1. An Introduction to Ashkenazic History and Genetics
Early settlements, migrations, and subgroups • An overview of Ashkenazic autosomal DNA and Y-DNA • Conversions to Judaism and intermarriages between Jewish men and non-Israelite women in Western Jewish communities

CHAPTER 2. Encyclopedia of Ashkenazic Maternal Lineages
(A12'23, H1b, H1b1a, H1b2a, H1e4, H1e4a, H1f, H1u2, H1ai1, H1aj1, H1aj1a, H1as2, H1ax, H1bd, H1bo, H1bw, H2a1e1a, H2a2b1, H3, H3p, H3w, H3ap, H4a1a1, H4a1a1a, H4a1a3a, H5, H5-C16192T, H5-T16311C!, H5a1, H5a7, H5c2, H6a1a1a, H6a1a3, H6a1a5, H6a1b2, H6a1b3, H7c2, H7e, H7j, H10a1b, H11a1, H11a2a2, H11b1, H13a1a1, H13a1a1a, H15b, H25, H26c, H40b, H41a, H47, H56, H65a, HV0-T195C!, HV1a'b'c, HV1b2, HV5, HV5a, I1c1a, I5a1b, J1b1a1, J1c-C16261T, J1c1, J1c3e2, J1c4, J1c5, J1c7a, J1c13, J1c14, J2b1e, K1a1b1, K1a1b1a, K1a4a, K1a9, K2a, K2a2a1, L2a1l2a, M1a1b1c, M33c, N1b1a2, N1b1b1, N1b2, N9a3, R0a2m, R0a4, T1a, T1a1, T1a1b, T1a1j, T1a1k1, T1b, T1b3, T2a1, T2a1b, T2b3-C151T, T2b4, T2b4a, T2b16, T2b25, T2e1b, T2g1a, U1b1, U2e1a1, U3a1, U3a1a, U4a3a, U5a1a2a, U5a1b, U5a1b1, U5a1b1c2, U5a1d2b, U5a1f1a, U5a2b2a, U5b1b1-T16192C!, U5b1e1, U5b2a1a, U6a7a1b, U7a5, U8b1b1, V1a1, V7a, V7b, V15, V18a, W1h, W3a1a1, W3b1, X2b7, and X2e2a)

CHAPTER 3. Non-Ashkenazic Haplogroups in Populations Related to Ashkenazim
(Moroccan Jewish, Algerian Jewish, Libyan Jewish, Tunisian Jewish, Sephardic Jewish, Romaniote Jewish, Syrian Jewish, Egyptian Jewish, Iranian Jewish, Mountain Jewish, Georgian Jewish, Iraqi Jewish, Bukharan Jewish, Yemenite Jewish, Cochin Jewish, Bene Israel Jewish, Krymchak, Crimean Karaite, Chueta, Bragança Crypto-Jewish, Belmonte Crypto-Jewish, Polish, German, Italian, Greek, Lebanese, Samaritan, ancient Israel)

CHAPTER 4. Conclusion

About the Author


GenBank accession numbers OQ732365 (N9a3a1b1 Ashkenazi from Rajgród, Poland), OQ732687 (K1a4a2a1 Ashkenazi from Heldenbergen, Germany), OQ732697 (A-a1b3a1 Ashkenazi from Przyrów, Poland), OQ743418 (H5-a1a Ashkenazi from Grajewo, Poland), OQ830679 (R0a2m Ashkenazi from Usov, Czechia), OQ835717 (U1b1a1 Ashkenazi from Romania), OQ850128 (X2b7a Ashkenazi from Warsaw, Poland), OQ870073 (R0a4a Ashkenazi from Lithuania), OQ870309 (H10a1b1a Ashkenazi from Dnipro, Ukraine), OQ908857 (H7c2 Ashkenazi from Khmilnyk, Ukraine). More samples forthcoming.

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The author's other book of related interest:
The Jews of Khazaria by Kevin Alan Brook