Bibliography of Khazar Studies, 1901-Present
Compiled by Kevin Alan Brook

Section 10: Khazar Cities, Towns, Villages, and Fortresses

See also Chapter 2 of The Jews of Khazaria


THE KHAZAR CITY OF ATIL

In English:
        Dunlop, Douglas Morton. "Atil (Itil)." In Encyclopedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Keter, 1971-1972.
        Finkelshteyn, Norman J. "Itil, Long-lost Khazar Capital, Said to Be Found." Hadassah Magazine 90:4 (December 2008): 23.
        Gottheil, Richard and Rosenthal, Herman. "Atel." In The Jewish Encyclopedia, vol. 2, p. 260. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1901-1906 and New York: Ktav, 1964.
        Keys, David. "Russia's Jewish Empire." BBC History Magazine (May 2008): 10-11. Discusses excavations at the site believed to be Atil.
        Lesser, Alexander. "Itil, the lost Khazar city, 'found under water'." The Jerusalem Report (August 27, 1992): 1.
        Lipman, Steve. "Digging Jewish History." The New York Jewish Week, Manhattan edition, 221:22 (October 10, 2008): 4. Discusses excavations at the site believed to tbe Atil.
        Mukhamed'iarov, Sh. "Itil." In The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet History, Vol. 49, ed. George N. Rhyne and Joseph L. Wieczynski. Gulf Breeze, FL: Academic International Press, 1988.
        Vasiliev, Dmitry V. and Zilivinskaya, Emma D. "A Witness of Three Eras." Science in Russia No. 4 (2007): 37-45. About excavations at Samosdelka including the issue of the location of Atil.
        Ya'ari, Ehud. "Capital of ancient Jewish kingdom found in Volga River delta, archaeologist says." The Jerusalem Report (April 30, 2007).

In Hungarian:
        Erdélyi, István. "Megvan a Kazár Atlantisz!" Napjaink (March 17, 1993): 24.
        Flyorov, Valerii Sergeevich. "Itil: mi várhatja a régészeket a Kazár Kaganátus fővárosának helyén?" Eleink. Magyar őstörténet 10:1 (2011): 17-35.
        Hankó, Ildikó. "A kazár föváros rejtéje." Napjaink (March 17, 1993): 25.
        Polgár, Szabolcs. "Etil, a kazárok városa: Az urbanizáció kezdetei Volga-vidéken a középkorban." AETAS 26:3 (2011): 50-67.

In Japanese:
        Hirokawa, Ryuichi. "Yudaya teikoku Hazaaru maboroshi no shuto?" Asahi Shimbun (August 20, 1992). Hirokawa's investigations of the possible discovery of the lost capital of Khazaria.

In Polish:
        Nagrodzka-Majchrzyk, Teresa. "Miasta chazarskie Itil i Sarkel." Przeglad Orientalisticzny 1:85 (1973): 45-50.

In Russian:
        Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. "Khazarskoye pogrebenye i miesto, gdie stoyal Itil." Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha (Leningrad) 22 (1962): around 56-58.
        Gurenko, L. V., and Sitnikov, A. V. "K voprosu o lokalizatsii srednevekovix gorodov Atilya i Saksina." In Arxeologiya Nizhnego Povolzh'ya na rubezhe tisyacheletiy. Materialy Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Astrakhan: Izdatel'stvo Astrakhanskogo Pedagogicheskogo Universiteta, 2001, pp. 37-40.
        Kirokos'yan, M. "Velikaya zagadka xazarii." Volga: Nezavisimaya gazeta Astrakhanskoy oblasti No. 169 (24671) (November 10, 2004). About various archaeological teams' searches for the remains of Atil.
        Vasiliev, Dmitri V. "Itil'-mechta (Na raskopkax drevnego tsentra Xazarskogo kaganata)." Lekhaim 10 (174) (October 2006). His archaeological team now believes that Atil is located in the newly-found 9th and 10th century layers at the excavation site near Samosdelka village.
        Yakubovsky, A. Yu. "K voprosu ob istoricheskom topografii Itilya i Bolgar v IX-X vv." Sovietskaya arkheologiya 10 (1948): 255-270.
        Zhuravliev, Valerii. "Sensatsiya nashix dney: A vdrug eto legendarnii Itil'?" Parlamentskaya gazeta (September 20, 2005). A news report that Atil's remains may have been found in the 9th-10th century layers at the Samosdelka archaeological site.

In Swedish:
        Bilkenroth, Carl-Johan and Jonsson, Bengt. "Återfunnen judisk huvudstad grävs ut." Svenska Dagbladet (May 18, 2008): 24-25. Article about the apparent archaeological discovery of Atil.


THE KHAZAR TOWN AND FORTRESS OF SARKEL

In Bulgarian:
        Kasparova, K. B. "Khazaro-slavyanskata krepost Sarkel -- Byelaya Vyezha." In Sukrovishte na khan Kubrat. Kultura na Bulgari, Xazari, Slavyani: Katalog. Sofia, Bulgaria: Tsentur za propaganda, informatsiya i pechat pri Komiteta za kultura, 1989.

In English:
        Dunlop, Douglas Morton. "Sarkel." In Encyclopedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Keter, 1971-1972.
        McGovern, Michéal. "Sarkel - A Reflection of Byzantine Power or Weakness?" Byzantinoslavica 50 (1989): around 178-180.
        Norman, Geraldine. The Hermitage: The Biography of a Great Museum. New York: Fromm International, 1998. Part of chapter 11 ("Archaeology") summarizes Mikhail Artamonov's archaeological expeditions to Sarkel.
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. "Sarkel." In The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet History, Vol. 33, ed. George N. Rhyne and Joseph L. Wieczynski. Gulf Breeze, FL: Academic International Press, 1983.
        Wozniak, F. E. "Byzantine Policy on the Black Sea or Russian Steppe in the late 830s." Byzantine Studies / Études byzantines 2 (1975): around 56-62.

In German:
        Artamonov, Mikhail Illarionovich. "Die neuen Ausgrabungen in Sarkel-Belaja Wesha." Sowjetwissenschaft, Gesellschaftswissenschaftliche Abteilung 3 (Berlin, 1950): 108-117.

In Hungarian:
        Artamonov, Mikhail Illarionovich. "Sarkel-Belaja Vezsa." Szovjet Regeszet 16 (Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum, Történeti Múzeum, 1960): 39-65.
        Polgár, Szabolcs. "Sarkel." In A Kárpát-medence és a steppe, ed. Alfréd Márton, pp. 106-126. Budapest: Balassi Kiadó, 2001.
        Cross-referenced: Czeglédy, Károly. "Sarkel." Magyar Nyelv 48 (1952): 79-86. Linguistic analysis of the toponym Sarkel.

In Norwegian:
        Artamonov, Mikhail Illarionovich. "Khazar-festningen Sarkel." Viking (Oslo, Norway) 19 (1955): 99-120.

In Polish:
        Cross-referenced: Nagrodzka-Majchrzyk, Teresa. "Miasta chazarskie Itil i Sarkel." Przeglad Orientalisticzny (1973): 45-50.

In Russian:
        Artamonov, Mikhail Illarionovich. "Sarkel i nekotorie drugie ukrepleniya v severo-zapadnoy Xazarii." Sovietskaya arkheologiya No. 6 (1940): 130-167. Discusses Sarkel and other fortified places in north-western Khazaria.
        Artamonov, Mikhail Illarionovich. "Novye raskopki Sarkela-Beloy Vyezhi." Voprosy istorii (1949) No. 10: 138-143.
        Artamonov, Mikhail Illarionovich. "Raskopki Sarkela-Beloy Vyezhi v 1950 g." Voprosy istorii (1951) No. 4: 147-151.
        Artamonov, Mikhail Illarionovich. "Byelaya Vyezha." Sovietskaya arkheologiya 16 (1952): 42-76.
        Artamonov, Mikhail Illarionovich. "Khazarskaya krepost' Sarkel." Acta Archaeologica Hungarica 7 (1956): 321-341.
        Artamonov, Mikhail Illarionovich. "Sarkel -- Byelaya Vyezha." Materiali i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR No. 62 (1958).
        Artamonov, O. A. "Mogil'nik Sarkela -- Byeloya Vyezhi." Materiali i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR No. 109 (1963).
        Beletskiy, V. D. "Zhilishcha Sarkela -- Byeloy Vyezhi." Materiali i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR No. 75 (1959).
        Larenok, Paul Anatol'evich, and Semyonov, Alexander I. "Sarkel, Sarkel, eshe Sarkel..." Donskaya Arkheologiya No. 3-4 (1999): 25-33. About Sarkel and "Sarkel-3".
        Levenok, V. P. "Pryaslitsa gorodishcha Sarkel - Byelaya Vyezha." Materiali i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR No. 75 (1959).
        L'vova, Zlata Aleksandrovna. "Steklyannie blasleti i busi iz Sarkela -- Byeloya Vyezhi." Materiali i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR No. 75 (1959).
        L'vova, Zlata Aleksandrovna. "Novye dannye o vozmozhnykh prichinakh postroiki kreposti Sarkel." In Słowianie i ich sąsiedzi we wczesnym średniowieczu, ed. Marek Dulinicz, pp. 375-378. Lublin, Poland: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, 2003.
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. "Keramika Sarkela -- Byeloya Vyezhi." Materiali i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR No. 75 (1959).
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. "O domashnikh oberegakh Sarkele - Byeloy Vyezhe." Rossiyskaya arkheologiya (1994) No. 1: 166-172. Discusses kruzhki-amulety from the 2nd half of the 10th century and the beginning of the 11th century.
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. "Metallurgicheskiy i kuznechniy kompleksi Sarkela." Rossiyskaya arkheologiya No. 2 (1996).
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. Sarkel i "Shiolkovyi" Put'. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 1996.
        Rappoport, Pavel A. "Krepostnie sooruzheniya Sarkela." Materiali i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR No. 75 (1959): around 14-39.
        Shcherbak, Aleksandr Mikhailovich. "Znaki na keramike iz Sarkela." Epigrafika Vostoka 12 (1958): 52-58.
        Shcherbak, Aleksandr Mikhailovich. "Znaki na keramike i kirpichakh iz Sarkel-Byeloy Vyezyi (K voprosu o yazike i pis'mennosti pechenegov)." Materiali i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR No. 75 (1959): 362-389/414.
        Sorokin, S. S. "Zheleznie izdeliya Sarkela -- Byeloy Vyezhi." Materiali i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR No. 75 (1959).
        Cross-referenced: Makarova, T. I., and Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. "Poyas znatnogo voina iz Sarkela." Sovietskaya arkheologiya No. 2 (1983): 62-77.

In Turkish:
        Karatay, Osman. "Karadeniz'de İlk Ruslar ve Şarkel'in İnşası." Belleten 74:269 (April 2010): 69-108.


TSIMLYANSKOYE HILL-FORT OF KHAZARIA

In Russian:
        Korshikov, N. S. and Mininkov, N. A. "Novye dokumenty o Pravoberezhnom Tsimlyanskom gorodishche." Donskaya Arkheologiya No. 1 (1999): 84-89. New documents on the right-bank Tsimlyansk ancient town site.
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. "Istoriya odnogo xazarskogo poseleniy (Pravoberezhnoe Tsimlyanskoye gorodishche). Raskopki 1958-1959 gg." Materiali po arkheologii, istorii i etnografii Tavrii. Simferopol', 1996. Vip. V.


MOXNACH HILL-FORT OF KHAZARIA

In Russian:
        Koloda, Vladimir V. "Nekotorye itogi arxeologicheskix issledovaniy Moxnachanskogo gorodishcha." In Xristiyans'ki starozhitnosti Livoberezhnoyi Ukrainyi, pp. 40-45. Poltava, 1999.


MAYATSK/MAYAKI HILL-FORT OF KHAZARIA

In Russian:
        Afanas'yev, Gennadii Evgenevich. "Issledovanie yuzhnogo ugla Mayatskoy kreposti." In Mayatskoye gorodishche: trudy Sovetsko-Bolgaro-Vengerskoy ekspeditsii. Moscow: Nauka, 1984.
        Afanas'yev, Gennadii Evgenevich, and Nikolayenko, A. G. "Metallurgicheskiy kompleks u s. Ezdochnoe." In Mayatskoye gorodishche: trudy Sovetsko-Bolgaro-Vengerskoy ekspeditsii. Moscow: Nauka, 1984.
        Flyorov, Valerii Sergeevich. "O sotsial'nom stroe v Xazarskom kaganate (na materialakh Mayatskogo mogil'nika." In Sotsial'naya differentsiya obshchestva, pp. 119-132. 1993.
        Klyashtornyi, Sergey Grigorievich. "Khazarskaya nadpis' na amfore s gorodishcha Mayaki." Sovietskaya arkheologiya (1979) No. 1: 270-275.
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna, and Krasil'nikov, K. I. "Goncharnie masterskie Mayatskogo kompleksa." Materiali sovietsko-bulgaro-vengerskoy ekspeditsii. Moscow, 1990. Archaeological expedition of 1975-1978.
        Vinnikov, Anatolii Zakharovich. "Zhilie i xozyaystvennie postroyki Mayatskogo selishcha (rezul'tati raskopok 1975, 1977, 1987 gg.)" In Mayatskoye gorodishche: trudy Sovetsko-Bolgaro-Vengerskoy ekspeditsii. Moscow: Nauka, 1984.
        Vinnikov, Anatolii Zakharovich, and Afanas'yev, G. E. Kul'torie kompleksi Mayatskogo selishcha. Voronezh, 1991.
        Vinnikov, Anatolii Zakharovich, and Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. Na severnykh rubezhakh Khazarskogo kaganata: Mayatskoye poselenie. Voronezh: Izdatel'stvo Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 1998. Archaeological expedition of 1975-1978 uncovered traces of the Khazars and Alans at the Mayatsk site.


DMITRIEVSKY ARCHAEOLOGICAL COMPLEX IN KHAZARIA

In Russian:
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. Na slavyano-xazarskom pogranich'e. Dmitrievskiy arkheologicheskiy kompleks. Moscow, 1989.


THE TOWN AND FORTRESS OF VERKHNEYE SALTOVO

In Russian:
        Berezovets, D. T. "Raskopki v Verkhnem Saltove v 1959-1960 gg." Kratkie soobshcheniya Instituta arkheologii Akademiya Nauk SSSR 12 (Kiev, 1962).


KHAZAR FORTRESS AT MANGUP (DOROS)

In Russian:
        Gertsen, Aleksandr Germanovich. "Krepostnoy ansambl' Mangupa." In Materialy po arkheologii, istorii i etnografii Tavrii, Vol. 1, pp. 88-166. Simferopol: Tavriya, 1990.
        Gertsen, Aleksandr Germanovich. "Khazary v Dorose-Mangupe." Khazarskiy al'manax 1 (Kharkiv, 2002): 29-34.


KHAZAR FORTRESS AT CHUFUT-KALE

In Russian:
        Belyi, A. V. "K voprosu o datirovke 'srednei' oboronitel'noy steny Chufut-Kale." Vizantiiskii Vremennik 51 (1990): 205-210.


THE KHAZAR CITY OF KIEV

In English:
        Brutzkus, Julius Davidovich. "The Khazar Origin of Ancient Kiev." Slavonic and East European Review 22 (May 1944): 108-124. Offers evidence that parts of Kiev were founded by Khazars and assigned names from the Khazar language.


THE KHAZAR CITY OF SAMANDAR

In Russian:
        Fedorov, Ya. A., and Fedorov, G. S. Rannye tyurki na Severnom Kavkaze. Moscow, 1978.
        Gadlo, Aleksandr Vil'iamovich. Etnicheskaya istoriya Severnogo Kavkaza IV-X vv. Leningrad: Izd-vo Leningradskogo universiteta, 1979.
        Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. "Gde zhe togda Semender?" Voprosy istorii (1969) No. 3: 242-243.
        Kotovich, V. G. "O mestopolozhenii rannesrednevekovyh gorodov Varachana, Belendzhera, i Targu." Materialy po Arkheologii Dagestana 5 (Makhachkala, Russia): 194-197.
        Kotovich, V. G. "Arkheologicheskie dannye o mestonahozhdenii Semendera." In Drevnosti Dagestana, pp. 232-255. Makhachkala, Russia, 1974.
        Magomedov, Murad Gadgievich. "Khazarskie poseleniya v Dagestane." Sovietskaya arkheologiya (1975) No. 2: 202-216.
        Magomedov, Murad Gadgievich. "Pogrebal'nye sooruzheniya khazar." Materiali po Arkheologii i Drevney Istorii Severnoy Osetii 3 (1975): around p. 64.


THE KHAZAR CITY OF BALANJAR (VERKHNEYE CHIRYURT)

In Russian:
        Magomedov, Murad Gadgievich. "Kostianyie nakladki sedla iz verchnechiryurtovskogo mogil'nika." Sovietskaya arkheologiya (1975) No. 1: pp. 285?-281?
        Magomedov, Murad Gadgievich. "Verkhnechiryurtovskiy kurgannyi mogil'nik." Materialy po Arkheologii Dagestana 7 (Makhachkala, Russia): 5-35.
        Magomedov, Murad Gadgievich. "K voprosu o proishozhdenii verkhnechiryurtovskogo kurgannogo mogil'nika." Materialy po Arkheologii Dagestana 7 (Makhachkala, Russia): 36-53.
        Magomedov, Murad Gadgievich. "Rannesrednevokovye tserkvi Verkhnego Chiryurta." Sovietskaya arkheologiya (1979) No. 3: 186-202.
        Putineeva, N. D. "Verkhnechiryurtovskiy mogil'nik." Materialy po Arkheologii Dagestana 2 (Makhachkala, Russia, 1961): 248-264.


THE KHAZAR CITY OF AL-BAYDA

In English:
        Goldelman, Menashe. "On the Location of the Khazarian City of Al-Bayda." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 10 (1998-1999): 63-71.


FORTRESS WITH TURRETS AND AQUEDUCTS AT COAST OF TSIMLYANSK RESERVOIR

In Russian:
        Filippova, Natalia. "Arkheologi nashli staruyu krepost'." Komsomol'skaya Pravda - na-Donu (February 1, 2000).


CITIES: MISCELLANEOUS

In Italian:
        Signorini, Alberto. "I cazari: Itil, Sarkel e Kiev." Los Muestros: The Sephardic Voice No. 21 (December 1995).

In Russian:
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. "Goroda v Xazarskom kaganate (doklad k postanovke problemy)." Khazarskiy al'manax 1 (Kharkiv, 2002): 110-124.


FORTRESSES: MISCELLANEOUS

In Russian:
        Flyorov, Valerii Sergeevich. "Kreposti Xazarii v doline Nizhnego Dona (etyud k teme fortifikatsii)." Khazarskiy al'manax 1 (Kharkiv, 2002): 151-168. Concerning Khazar fortresses in the lower Don valley.


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