Bibliography of Khazar Studies, 1901-Present
Compiled by Kevin Alan Brook

Section 12: Relations Between the Khazars and Other Peoples

See also Chapters 7 and 8 of The Jews of Khazaria


KHAZARS AND KABARS IN HUNGARY
AND RELATIONS BETWEEN THE KHAZARS AND HUNGARIANS

In English:
        Bartha, Antal. Hungarian Society in the 9th and 10th Centuries. Trans. K. Balazs. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1975. Originally published in 1968 (by the same publisher) in Hungarian under the title A ix-x. századi magyar társadalom.
        Fodor, István. In Search of a New Homeland: The Prehistory of the Hungarian People and the Conquest. Trans. Helen Tarnoy. Gyoma, Hungary: Corvina, 1982.
        Györffy, György. King Saint Stephen of Hungary. Trans. Peter Doherty. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. East European Monographs #403.
        Kosztolnyik, Zoltan J. Five Eleventh Century Hungarian Kings: Their Policies and Their Relations with Rome. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981. East European Monographs #79.
        Kristó, Gyula. Hungarian History in the Ninth Century. Trans. György Novak. Szeged, Hungary: Szegedi Kozepkorasz Muhely, 1996.
        Macartney, Carlile Aylmer. The Magyars in the Ninth Century. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1930.
        Makkai, László. "The Hungarians' Prehistory, Their Conquest of Hungary, and Their Raids to the West to 955." In A History of Hungary, ed. Peter F. Sugar, pp. 8-14. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990.
        Róna-Tas, András. Hungarians and Europe in the Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History. Budapest: Central European University Press, 1999.
        Róna-Tas, András. "The Khazars and the Magyars." In The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives - Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, eds. Peter Benjamin Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas, pp. 269-278. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2007.
        Takács, Bálint Zoltán. "Khazars, Pechenegs and Hungarians in the Ninth Century." In The Turks, vol. 1, eds. Hasan Celâl Güzel, C. Cem Oguz, and Osman Karatay, pp. 524-532. Ankara, Turkey: Yeni Türkiye, 2002.
        Cross-referenced: Kiss, Attila. "11th Century Khazar Rings from Hungary with Hebrew Letters and Signs." Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 22 (1970): 341-348.
        Cross-referenced: Scheiber, Alexander (Sándor). Jewish Inscriptions in Hungary from the 3rd Century to 1686. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1983.
        Cross-referenced: Soric, Ante, et al., eds. Jews in Yugoslavia: Muzejski prostor, Zagreb, Jezuitski trg 4. Trans. Mira Vlatkovic and Sonia Wild-Bicanic. Zagreb, Croatia: MGC, 1989. English translation of the Serbo-Croatian book Zidovi na tlu Jugoslavije: Muzejski prostor Zagreb, 14.IV.-12.VI.1988, which was published in 1988 by Muzejski prostor. See page 28 of the English edition for discussion of graves of pagans and Jews at Chelarevo (some containing inscribed Hebrew words and Jewish symbols), and pages 21-22 for photographs of two Jewish stones.

In French:
        Erdélyi, István. "Les relations hungaro-khazares." Studia et Acta Orientalia 4 (Budapest, 1962): 39-44.

In German:
        Göckenjan, Hansgerd. Hilfsvölker und Grenzwächter im mittelalterlichen Ungarn. Wiesbaden, West Germany: Franz Steiner, 1972.
        Schönebaum, Herbert. "Zur Kabarenfrage." In Aus der byzantinischen Arbeit der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, ed. Johannes Irmscher, pp. 142-146. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1957.

In Hungarian:
        Gyóni, Mátyás. "Kalizok, kazárok, kabarok, magyarok." Magyar Nyelv 34 (1938): 86-96, 159-168.
        Györffy, György. Tanulmányok a magyar állam eredetérõl: a nemzetsegtol a varmegyeig, a torzstol az orszagig: Kurszan es Kurszanvara. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959. See especially pages 44-60.
        Petrik, István. Rejtélyek országa: a kazár királyság és a kazár-magyar kapcsolatok rövid története. Budapest: Cédrus Muvészeti Alapítvány Napkút Kiadó, 2008.
        Róheim, Géza. "A kazár nagyfejedelem és a turulmonda." Ethnographia 28 (1917): 58-98.
        Róheim, Géza. "A kazár kagán és a magyar nagyfejedelem." Ethnographia 29 (1918): 142-145. Discusses the dual-monarchies of the Khazars and Magyars.
        Tóth, Sándor Laszló. "Kabarok (kavarok) a 9. századi magyar törzsszövetségben." Századok 118:1 (1984): 92-113.
        Tóth, Sándor Laszló. "Kabarok és fekete magyarok." Acta Historica 82 (1987): 23-29.
        Tóth, Sándor Laszló. "A nyolcadik törzs, (Hogyan lett magyar a kabar?)" In Száz rejtely a magyar történelemböl, ed. Ferenc Halmos, pp. 16-17. Budapest: Gesta, 1994.
        Ujvári, Péter, ed. Magyar zsidó lexikon. Budapest: Pallas, 1929. Contains several entries on the Khazars ("Kozárok").
        (Author?) "Kabar." In Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9-14. század), ed. Gyula Kristó, et al., pp. ?-?. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1994.

In Italian:
        Signorini, Alberto. "I magiari e i Kabarim." Los Muestros No. 22 (March 22, 1996).

In Russian:
        Fodor, István. "Vengry v Xazarii." In Xazary: Vtoroi Mezhdunarodnii kollokvium: tezisy, ed. Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin and Artyom M. Fedorchuk, pp. 98-101? Moscow: Tsentr nauchnyx rabotnikov i prepodavatelei iudaiki v vuzakh "Sefer", Evreiskii universitet v Moskve, and Institut Slavyanovedeniya Rossiiskoy akademii nauk, 2002.
        Cross-referenced: Erdélyi, István. "Kabari (Kavari) v Karpatskom Basseyne." Sovietskaya Arkheologiya 4 (1983): 174-181. Proposes that Khazarian Kabars of the Jewish faith were buried at Chelarevo.

In Turkish:
        Takács, Bálint Zoltán. "Ix. Yüzyılda Hazarlar, Peçenekler ve Macarlar." In Türkler, vol. 2, eds. Hasan Celâl Güzel, Kemal Çiçek, and Salim Koca, pp. 497-505. Ankara, Turkey: Yeni Türkiye, 2002.


RELATIONS BETWEEN THE KHAZARS AND THE BYZANTINES

In Bulgarian:
        Vachkova, Veselina. "'Zapadât' i 'Granitsata' na Oykumeneto: Bâlgariya, Xazarite i Bizantiya VII-X v." In Bâlgari i Xazari: Prez Rannoto Srednovekovie, ed. Tsvetelin Stepanov, pp. 197-218. Sofia: TANGRA TanNakRa, 2003. Interactions between the Byzantines, Khazars, and Bulgars.

In English:
        Brook, Kevin Alan. "Khazar-Byzantine Relations." In The Turks, vol. 1, eds. Hasan Celâl Güzel, C. Cem Oguz, and Osman Karatay, pp. 509-515. Ankara, Turkey: Yeni Türkiye, 2002.
        Bury, John Bagnell. A History of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Fall of Irene to the Accession of Basil I. London: Macmillan and Co., 1912.
        Huxley, George. "Byzantinochazarika." Hermathena 148 (1990): 69-87.
        Noonan, Thomas Schaub. "Byzantium and the Khazars: a special relationship?" In Byzantine Diplomacy: Papers from the Twenty-fourth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Cambridge, March 1990, ed. Jonathan Shepard and Simon Franklin, pp. 109-132. Aldershot, England: Variorium, 1992.
        Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium: The Early Centuries. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989.
        Obolensky, Dimitri. "The Empire and its Northern Neighbours 565-1018." In The Cambridge Medieval History, 2nd ed., Vol. 4, Part 1, ed. J. Bury, pp. 473-518. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1966.
        Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1969.
        Shepard, Jonathan. "Byzantine Relations with the Outside World in the Ninth Century: An Introduction." In Byzantium in the Ninth Century: Dead or Alive?, ed. Leslie Brubaker, pp. 167-180. Aldershot, England: Variorum, 1998.
        Toynbee, Arnold J. Constantine Porphyrogenitus and His World. London: Oxford University Press, 1973.
        Vachkova, Veselina. "Danube Bulgaria and Khazaria as part of the Byzantine oikoumene." In The Other Europe in the Middle Ages: Avars, Bulgars, Khazars and Cumans, ed. Florin Curta. Leiden: Brill, 2007.
        Whittow, Mark. The Making of Byzantium, 600-1025. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1996.
        Zuckerman, Constantine. "The Khazars and Byzantium - The First Encounter." In The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives - Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, eds. Peter Benjamin Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas, pp. 399-432. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2007.
        Cross-referenced: Obolensky, Dimitri. The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500-1453. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971; New York: Praeger, 1971; Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1982.
        Cross-referenced: Shepard, Jonathan. "The Khazars' Formal Adoption of Judaism and Byzantium's Northern Policy." Oxford Slavonic Papers, New Series 31 (1998).

In French:
        Cross-referenced: Mošin, Vladimir A. "Les Khazares et les Byzantins d'après l'Anonyme de Cambridge." Byzantion 6 (1931): 309-325.

In Greek:
        Kralides, Apostolos. Hoi Chazaroi kai to Vyzantio: historike kai threskeiologike prosengise. Athens, Greece: Savvalas, 2003. About Khazar-Byzantine relations and religion among the Khazars.

In Russian:
        Gorianov, B. T. "Vizantiya i Khazary." Istoricheskie Zapiski 15 (Moscow, 1945): 262-277.
        Mogarichev, Yuri M. "K voprosu o vizantiysko-xazarskix otnosheniyax v Krymu v seredine IX v." In Xazary: Vtoroi Mezhdunarodnii kollokvium: tezisy, ed. Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin and Artyom M. Fedorchuk, pp. 70-72? Moscow: Tsentr nauchnyx rabotnikov i prepodavatelei iudaiki v vuzakh "Sefer", Evreiskii universitet v Moskve, and Institut Slavyanovedeniya Rossiiskoy akademii nauk, 2002. Khazar-Byzantine relations on the Crimea during the mid-9th century.
        Naumenko, Valery E. "Tserkovno-politicheskie kontakty Vizantiyskoy imperii i Xazarskogo kaganata v seredine IX v." In Xazary: Vtoroi Mezhdunarodnii kollokvium: tezisy, ed. Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin and Artyom M. Fedorchuk, pp. 73-76? Moscow: Tsentr nauchnyx rabotnikov i prepodavatelei iudaiki v vuzakh "Sefer", Evreiskii universitet v Moskve, and Institut Slavyanovedeniya Rossiiskoy akademii nauk, 2002.
        Zuckerman, Constantine. "Khazariya i Vizantiya: pervye kontakty." Materialy po arkheologii, istorii i etnografii Tavrii 8 (Simferopol, 2001): 312-333.

In Turkish:
        Brook, Kevin Alan. "Hazar-Bizans İlişkileri." In Türkler, vol. 2, eds. Hasan Celâl Güzel, Kemal Çiçek, and Salim Koca, pp. 473-480. Ankara, Turkey: Yeni Türkiye, 2002.


RELATIONS BETWEEN THE KHAZARS AND THE BULGARS

In Bulgarian:
        Atasanov, Georgi. "Bâlgaro-Xazarskata granitsa i Bâlgaro-Xazarskata brazhdebnost ot kraya na VII do sredata na IX vek." In Bâlgari i Xazari: Prez Rannoto Srednovekovie, ed. Tsvetelin Stepanov, pp. 92-113. Sofia: TANGRA TanNakRa, 2003.
        Pavlov, Plamen. "Bâlgaro-Xazarski vzaimootnosheniya i paraleli." In Bâlgari i Xazari: Prez Rannoto Srednovekovie, ed. Tsvetelin Stepanov, pp. 114-141. Sofia: TANGRA TanNakRa, 2003.

In English:
        Lang, David Marshall. The Bulgarians: From Pagan Times to the Ottoman Conquest. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1976.

In Russian:
        Dimitrov, Khristo. "Bolgariya i Khazary VII-VIII vekakh." Bulgarian Historical Review - revue bulgare d'histoire 17:2 (Sofia, 1989): 47-66.


RELATIONS BETWEEN THE KHAZARS AND THE GEORGIANS

In Russian:
        Yunusov, Arif. Meshetinskie turki: dva deportirovan narod. Baku: Zaman, 2000. Includes discussion of the settlement of Khazars and other Turks in Georgia and their relations with the Georgian people.


RELATIONS BETWEEN THE KHAZARS AND KIEVAN RUS

In Bulgarian:
        Naimushin, Boris. "Xazarskiyat kaganat i iztochna Evropa: Sblâsâtsi mezhdu 'nomadite na stepta' i 'nomadite na rekite'." In Bâlgari i Xazari: Prez Rannoto Srednovekovie, ed. Tsvetelin Stepanov, pp. 142-158. Sofia: TANGRA TanNakRa, 2003.

In English:
        Artamonov, Mikhail Illarionovich. "The Khazars and the Formation of the Russian State." In Readings in Russian History and Culture, ed. Ivar Spector and Marian Spector, pp. 3-13. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1965.
        Dunlop, Douglas Morton. "H. M. Baratz and His View of Khazar Influence on the Earliest Russian Literature, Juridical and Historical." In Salo Wittmayer Baron Jubilee Volume on the Occasion of his Eightieth Birthday 1, pp. 345-367. Jerusalem: American Academy for Jewish Research, 1975. Critical of Baratz's hypotheses.
        Gottesman, Brian Michael. "Kiev, the Pechenegs, and the Khazars." In World History Encyclopedia, ed. Alfred J. Andrea, Era 4: Expanding Regional Civilizations, 300-1000. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2011.
        Luciw, Jurij. Sviatoslav the Conqueror: Creator of a Great Kyivian Rus' Empire. State College, PA: Slavia Library, 1986. Ukrainian Free Press Series Monographs #40.
        Noonan, Thomas Schaub. "The Khazar Qaghanate and its Impact on the Early Rus' State: The translatio imperii from Itil to Kiev." In Nomads in the Sedentary World, eds. Anatoly Mikhailovich Khazanov and André Wink, pp. 76-102. Richmond, England: Curzon Press, 2001.
        Petrukhin, Vladimir Iakovlevich. "The Normans and the Khazars in the South of Rus' (The Formation of the 'Russian Land' in the Middle Dnepr Area)." Russian History/Histoire russe 19 (1992): 393-400.
        Petrukhin, Vladimir Iakovlevich. "Khazaria and Rus': An Examination of their Historical Relations." In The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives - Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, eds. Peter Benjamin Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas, pp. 245-268. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2007.
        Pritsak, Omeljan. The Origin of Rus'. Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, Harvard University Press, 1981.
        Cross-referenced: Brutzkus, Julius Davidovich. "The Khazar Origin of Ancient Kiev." Slavonic and East European Review 22 (May 1944): 108-124. Alleges Khazarian influences upon the Rus.

In German:
        Brutzkus, Julius Davidovich. "Die Chazaren und das Kiewer Russland." In VIIe Congrès International des Sciences Historiques: Résumés des communications présentées au Congrès, Vol. 1, pp. 108-113. Warsaw: Société Polonaise d'Histoire, 1933. Alleges the existence of Khazar place-names in Kiev city and Kiev district.

In Russian:
        Baratz, German Markovich. Sobranie trudov po voprosu o evreyskom élemente v pamyatnikax drevnerusskoy pis'mennosti. Paris, 1927. Alleges Khazarian influences upon the Rus.
        Goldelman (Bogachek), Michael. "O diarxii v Drevney Rusi (IX-X vv.)" In Jews and Slavs, vol. 3, ed. Wolf Moskovich, Samuel Schwarzband, and Anatoly Alekseev, pp. 69-87. Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Russian and Slavic Studies, Center for the Study of Slavic Languages and Literature, 1995.
        Mošin, Vladimir A. "Rus' i Xazariya pri Svyatoslave." Seminarum Kondakovianum 6 (Prague, 1933): 187-208.
        Novosel'tsev, Anatolii Petrovich. "Drevnerussko-Xozarskie otnosheniya i formirovanie territorii Drevnerusskogo gosudarstva." In Feodalizm v Rossii. Moscow, 1987.
        Parxomenko, V. "Kievskaya Rus' i Xazariya (Rol' xazarskogo torgovogo kapitala v istorii Kievskoy derzhavy)." Slavia 6 (1927-1928): 380-387.
        Petrukhin, Vladimir Iakovlevich. "Varyagi i khazary v istoriya Rusi." Etnograficheskoye obozreniye (Moscow, 1993) No. 3.
        Semyonov, Igor' Godovich. "Rusi i Bizantiya: Osnovanie Kievskoy Rusi sleduet otnosit' ko vremeni, neskol'ko bolee rannemu, chem prinyato schitat'." Nezavisimaya Arkheologiya 27 (January 19, 2000) No. 1.
        Toporov, Vladimir Nikolaevich. Sviatost' i sviatye v russkoi dukhovnoi kul'ture: Pervyi Vek Christianstva na Rusi. Moscow: "Gnozis", Shkola "Yaziki russkoi kul'tury", 1995. Contains hundreds of pages discussing intellectual communications (linguistic and cultural) between Jews and Rus'ians and establishing the Khazarian origin of the Rus Jews.
        Yakubovsky, A. Yu. "O Russko-Xazarskix i Russko-kavkazskix otnosheniyax v IX-X vv." Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, historical series 3:5 (1946) 461-472. On Russian-Khazar and Russian-Caucasian relations in the 9th-10th centuries.
        Zuckerman, Constantine. "Rus', Vizantiya i Khazariya v srednie X veka: problemy khronologii." In Grecheskii i slavianskii mir v srednie veka i rannee novoe vremia: sbornik statei k 70-letiiu akademika Gennadiia Grigor'evicha Litavrina, ed. Boris Nikolaevich Floria, pp. 68-80. Moscow: Izd-vo "Indrik", 1996. Slavyane i ikh sosedi vol. 6.
        Cross-referenced: Rybakov, Boris Aleksandrovich. "K voprosu o roli khazarskogo kaganata v istorii Rusi." Sovietskaya arkheologiya 18 (1953): 128-150. Rybakov, a Russian nationalist, claims that the Khazars had little impact upon the development of Kievan Rus.


MILITARY AFFAIRS

In Arabic:
        Rajihi, Muhammad ibn Sulayman ibn Salih. Dirasat fi tarikh al-`alaqat al-Islamiyah ma`a Urubba al-Sharqiyah: al-Muslimun wa-al-Khazar, 22-354 H/642-965 M. Riyadh: M.b.S.b.S., 1998.

In English:
        Czeglédy, Károly. "Khazar Raids in Transcaucasia in 762-764 A.D." Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 11 (1960): 75-88.
        Heath, Ian. Armies of the Dark Ages, 600-1066: Organisation, Tactics, Dress and Weapons. Goring-by-Sea, Sussex, U.K.: Wargames Research Group, 1979. Includes discussions of Khazarian military formation, tactical methods, and arms and armor.
        Kaplan, Frederick I. "The Decline of the Khazars and the Rise of the Varangians." American Slavic and East European Review 13 (1954): 1-10.
        Mako, Gerald. "The Possible Reasons for the Arab-Khazar Wars." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 17 (2010): 45-57.
        Minorsky, Vladimir Fedorovich. A History of Sharvan and Darband in the 10th-11th Centuries. Cambridge, England: W. Heffer and Sons, 1958.
        Newark, Timothy. The Barbarians: Warriors and Wars of the Dark Ages. London: Blandford Press, 1985. See pages 125-128 for comments on Khazarian military affairs.
        Noonan, Thomas Schaub. "Why Dirhams First Reached Russia: The Role of Arab-Khazar Relations in the Development of the Earliest Islamic Trade with Eastern Europe." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 4 (1984): 151-282.
        Polgár, Szabolcs. "A Contribution to the History of the Khazar Military Organisation: The Strengthening of the Camp." Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 58:2 (July 18, 2005): 197-204. Discusses defense strategies in Khazaria.
        Vasiliev, Alexander Alexandrovich. The Goths in the Crimea. Cambridge, MA: The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1936.
        Zeinaloglu, Jahangir. A Concise History of Azerbaijan. Trans. Ferhad P. Abasov. Winthrop, MA: F. P. Abasov, 1998.

In Russian:
        Aliev, Igrar, ed. Istoriya Azerbaydzhana. Baku: Elm, 1995. Chapters 12 and 13 discuss Khazar-Arab wars in early Azerbaijan (Albania).
        Beylis, V. M. "Soobshcheniya Khalify ibn Hayyata al-'Usfuri ob arabo-khazarskikh voynakh v VII-pervoy polovine VIII v." In Drevney'ie gosudarstva Vostochnoy Yevropy 1998 g., around pp. 36-37. Moscow, 2000. About Arab-Khazar wars.
        Kalinina, Tat'yana Mikhailovna. "Svedeniya Ibn Xaukalya o poxodox Rusi vremen Svyatoslava." In Drevneyshie gosudarstva na territorii SSSR, 1975, around pp. 90-101. Moscow, 1976. Discusses the Rus' attacks on Khazar cities during the years 965-968.
        Knyazkiy, Igor O. "Russko-vizantiyskaya voyna 941-944 gg. i Xazariya." In Xazary: Vtoroi Mezhdunarodnii kollokvium: tezisy, ed. Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin and Artyom M. Fedorchuk, pp. 51-53? Moscow: Tsentr nauchnyx rabotnikov i prepodavatelei iudaiki v vuzakh "Sefer", Evreiskii universitet v Moskve, and Institut Slavyanovedeniya Rossiiskoy akademii nauk, 2002.


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    Copyright © 1999-2010 by Kevin Alan Brook.