Bibliography of Khazar Studies, 1901-Present
Compiled by Kevin Alan Brook

Section 6: Religious Practices and Influences in Khazaria

See also Chapters 2 and 6 of The Jews of Khazaria


RELIGION: GENERAL

In Bulgarian:
        Stefanov Georgiev, Pavel. "Religiite na Xazarite." In Bâlgari i Xazari: Prez Rannoto Srednovekovie, ed. Tsvetelin Stepanov, pp. 173-196. Sofia: TANGRA TanNakRa, 2003. Indigenous religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam among the Khazars.


RELIGION: SHAMANIST BELIEFS IN KHAZARIA

In English:
        Mason, Richard A. E. "The Religious Beliefs of the Khazars." The Ukrainian Quarterly 51:4 (Winter 1995): 383-415.

In Russian:
        Flyorova, Valentina Yevgen'ievna. Obrazy i Syuzhety Mifologii Khazarii. Jerusalem: Gesharim and Moscow: Mosty Kul'tury, 2001. Analysis of objects containing imagery of Khazar shamanism.


RELIGION: THE BYZANTINE CHURCH'S ESTABLISHMENT OF BISHOPRICS NORTH OF THE BLACK SEA DURING KHAZARIAN TIMES

In English:
        Noonan, Thomas Schaub. "The Khazar-Byzantine World of the Crimea in the Early Middle Ages: The Religious Dimension." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 10 (1998-1999): 207-230.
        Obolensky, Dimitri. The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500-1453. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971; New York: Praeger, 1971; Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1982.
        Zuckerman, Constantine. "Two Notes on the Early History of the Thema of Cherson." Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 21 (1997): 210-222.

In French:
        Darrouzès, Jean. Notitiae Episcopatuum Ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae. Paris: Institut francais d'études byzantines, 1981.

In German:
        Moravcsik, Gyula. "Byzantinische Mission im Kreise der Türkervölker an der Nordküste des Schwarzen Meeres." In Proceedings of the XIII International Congress of Byzantine Studies, Oxford, 1966, ed. J. M. Hussey, Dimitri Obolensky, and Steven Runciman, around pp. 22-24. Oxford, 1967.

In Russian:
        Mošin, Vladimir A. "Eparxia Gotthias v Khazarii v XIII v." In Trudy IV s'ezda russkikh akademicheskikh organizatsii zagranitsei, Vol. 1, pp. 149-156. Belgrade, 1929. On the establishment of iconodule churches and monasteries in Crimean Gothia and Byzantine attempts to counter the iconodules' influence.
        Zuckerman, Constantine. "K voprosu o ranney istorii femy Khersona." Bakhchisarayskikh istoriko-arkheologicheskiy sbornik 1 (Simferopol, 1997): 312-323.


RELIGION: SAINT CYRIL'S VISIT TO KHAZARIA IN 860-861

In Bulgarian:
        Elevterov, Stefan. "Khazarskata misiya na Konstantin-Kiril." In Izsledovaniya po Kirilo-Metodievistika, ed. Angelina Coneva Ignatova and Krasimir Stefanov Stanchev, pp. 216-253. Sofia: Nauka i izkustvo, 1985.
        Kochev, Nikolaj. "Khazarskata misiya na Konstantin Filosof-Kiril v svetlinata na Kembridzhskiya anonim i izvestiyata na Yexuda Alevi." Kirilo-Metodievski studii 5 (1988): 91-98.
        Sâbev, Todor. "Po nyakoi vâprosi na khazarskata misiya." In Konstantin-Kiril Filosof: Jubileen sbornik po sluchay 1,100-godishninata ot smârtta mu, ed. Bonyu Stoyanov Angelov, et. al., pp. 105-125. Sofia: Izdatelstvo na bâlgarskata akademiya na naukite, 1969.
        Sâbev, Todor. "Prostrannoto zhitie na Konstantin-Kiril pârvostepenen istoricheski izvor na khazarskata misiya." In Konstantin-Kiril Filosof: Dokladi ot simposiuma posveten na 1100-godishninata ot smârtta mu, ed. Bonyu Stoyanov Angelov, et al., pp. 305-315. Sofia: Izdatelstvo na bâlgarskata akademiya na naukite, 1971.
        Trendafilov, Khristo. Khazarskata polemika na Konstantin-Kiril. Sofia: UI "Sv. Kliment Okhridski", 1999.

In English:
        Butler, Francis. "The Representation of Oral Culture in the Vita Constantini." Slavic and East European Journal 39:3 (1995): 367-384.
        Nikolov, Stephan. "The Magyar Connection or Constantine and Methodius in the Steppes." Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 21 (1997): 79-92.
        Pritsak, Omeljan. "Turkological Remarks on Constantine's Khazarian Mission in the Vita Constantini." In Christianity among the Slavs: The Heritage of Saints Cyril and Methodius, eds. Edward G. Farrugia, Robert F. Taft, and Gino K. Piovesana, pp. 295-298. Rome: Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, 1988.

In French:
        van Esbroeck, Michel. "Le substrat hagiographique de la mission khazare de Constantin-Cyrille." Analecta Bollandiana 104 (1986): 337-348.

In German:
        Panzer, Baldur. "Der Chazaren-Disput (Kap. IX-XI)." Zeitschrift für slavische Philologie 34:1 (1968): 78-84.
        Ziffer, G. "Konstantin und die Khazaren." Welt der Slaven 34 (1989): 354-361.

In Russian:
        Stichel, Rainer. "Pochemu sv. Kirill vyuchil yevreyskiy yazyk v Krymu?" In Xazary: Vtoroi Mezhdunarodnii kollokvium: tezisy, ed. Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin and Artyom M. Fedorchuk, pp. 108-?. Moscow: Tsentr nauchnyx rabotnikov i prepodavatelei iudaiki v vuzakh "Sefer", Evreiskii universitet v Moskve, and Institut Slavyanovedeniya Rossiiskoy akademii nauk, 2002.


RELIGION: SAINT METHODIUS AMONG THE KHAZARS

In English:
        Jakobson, Roman Osipovich. "Minor Native Sources for the Early History of the Slavic Church." Harvard Slavic Studies 2 (1954): 39-73. Mentions a time when Saint Methodius debated with a Khazar in Central Europe.


RELIGION: THE KHAZAR CONVERSION TO JUDAISM AND JEWS LIVING IN KHAZARIA

In English:
        Brook, Kevin Alan. "Khazars and Judaism." In The Encyclopaedia of Judaism, vol. 4: Supplement One, eds. Jacob Neusner, Alan J. Avery-Peck, and William Scott Green, pp. 1821-1832. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 2003. Revised version published in The Encyclopaedia of Judaism, Second Edition, vol. 2, eds. Jacob Neusner, Alan J. Avery-Peck, and William Scott Green, pp. 1510-1521. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 2005.
        Chekin, Leonid Sergeevich. "The Role of Jews in Early Russian Civilization in the Light of a New Discovery and New Controversies." Russian History/Histoire russe 17:4 (Winter 1990): 379-394.
        Chekin, Leonid Sergeevich. "Christian of Stavelot and the Conversion of Gog and Magog: A Study of a Ninth-Century Reference to Judaism among the Khazars." Russia Mediaevalis 9:1 (1997): 13-34.
        Golden, Peter Benjamin. "Khazaria and Judaism." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 3 (1983): 127-156.
        Golden, Peter Benjamin. "The Conversion of the Khazars to Judaism." In The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives - Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, eds. Peter Benjamin Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas, pp. 123-162. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2007.
        Olsson, Joshua T. "Coup d'état, Coronation and Conversion: Some Reflections on the Adoption of Judaism by the Khazar Khaganate." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 23:4 (October 2013): 495-526.
        Pines, Shlomo. "A Moslem Text Concerning the Conversion of the Khazars to Judaism." Journal of Jewish Studies 13 (1962): 45-55. Translation and explanation of portions of a work by Abd-al-Jabbar ibn Muhammad al-Hamdani.
        Prieto-Domínguez, Óscar. "Conversion of the Khazars to Judaism (9th Century)." In Great Events in Religion: An Encyclopedia of Pivotal Events in Religious History, vol. 2: AD 600 to 1450, eds. Florin Curta and Andrew Holt, pp. 422-423. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2017.
        Pritsak, Omeljan. "The Khazar Kingdom's Conversion to Judaism." Harvard Ukrainian Studies 3:2 (Sept. 1978): 261-281.
        Shapira, Dan D. Y. "Jews in Khazaria." In Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, vol. 3, ed. M. Avrum Ehrlich, pp. 1097-1104. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2008.
        Shepard, Jonathan. "The Khazars' Formal Adoption of Judaism and Byzantium's Northern Policy." Oxford Slavonic Papers, New Series 31 (1998): 11-34.
        Vernadsky, George. "Byzantium and Southern Russia: Two Notes. I. The Eparchy of Gothia. II. The Date of the Conversion of the Khazars to Judaism." Byzantion 15 (1940-1941): 67-86. Argues (on pp. 76-86) that the conversion took place in the 9th century.
        Vikhnovich, Vsevolod L. "From the Jordan to the Dnieper." Jewish Studies (Mada'e ha-Yahadut) 31 (1991): 15-24.
        Zuckerman, Constantine. "On the Date of the Khazars' Conversion to Judaism and the Chronology of the Kings of the Rus Oleg and Igor." Revue des Études Byzantines 53 (1995): 237-270. Argues that the conversion took place in the 9th century.
        Cross-referenced: Kovalev, Roman K. "Creating Khazar Identity through Coins: The Special Issue Dirhams of 837/8." In East Central and Eastern Europe in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Florin Curta, pp. 220-253. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2005. Discusses evidence that the Khazars minted coins and its implications for dating the Khazar conversion to Judaism.
        Cross-referenced: Ya'ari, Ehud. "Archaeological Finds Add Weight to Claim that Khazars Converted to Judaism." The Jerusalem Report 10:4 (June 21, 1999): 8.
        Cross-referenced: Zuckerman, Constantine. "On the Origin of the Khazar Diarchy and the Circumstances of Khazaria's Conversion to Judaism." In The Turks, vol. 1, eds. Hasan Celal Güzel, C. Cem Oguz, and Osman Karatay, pp. 516-523. Ankara, Turkey: Yeni Türkiye, 2002.

In French:
        Grégoire, Henri. "La vérité sur le Judaisme des Khazares." Byzantion 9 (1934): 484-488.
        Halévy, Mayer A. "Le problème des Khazares: contribution à l'histoire de l'expansion religieuse de Byzance..." Bulletin de l'Institut archélogique bulgare 9 (Sofia, 1935): 384-388.
        Szyszman, Simon. "Le roi Bulan et le problème de la conversion des Khazars." Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 33 (1957): 68-76.

In Hebrew:
        Poliak, Abraham Nahum. [Adoption of Judaism by the Khazars]. Zion (Jerusalem) 6 (1941-1942): pp. 106-112 and 160-180.

In Hebrew and Yiddish:
        Farfel, Ilia Gershovich. Bet ha-keneset he-atik (Dos alte gefunne shul in Feodosya). Pietrekov: Bi-defus H. H. Falman, 1912. Also contains 14 pages of Russian text. Discusses Jewish history in Feodosiya and a synagogue in Feodosiya that is alleged to be of Khazarian manufacture.

In Hungarian:
        Balogh, László. "A kazárok zsidó hitre térése." In Térítés - megtérítés. A világvallások terjedése Kelet-Európa népei között, eds. László Balogh and Szilvia Kovács, pp. 53-65. Budapest: Balassi, 2009.
        Lang, D. "A Kazárok zsidósága." Magyar Nyelv 44 (1948): 37-42.
        Telegdi, Zsigmond. A Kazárok es a Zsidóság. Budapest, 1940.

In Polish:
        Rostkowski, Grzegorz. "Konwersja Chazarii na mozaizm na przełomie VIII i IX w." In Z dziejów średniowiecznej Europy Srodkowowschodniej, ed. Jan Tyszkiewicz, pp. 7-15. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo DiG, 1998.

In Russian:
        Flyorov, Valerii Sergeevich. "Iudaizm v arxeologii Xazarii: gde i chto iskat'?" In Xazary: Vtoroi Mezhdunarodnii kollokvium: tezisy, ed. Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin and Artyom M. Fedorchuk, pp. 93-95?. Moscow: Tsentr nauchnyx rabotnikov i prepodavatelei iudaiki v vuzakh "Sefer", Evreiskii universitet v Moskve, and Institut Slavyanovedeniya Rossiiskoy akademii nauk, 2002.
        Gol'del'man, Michael (Menashe). "Yevrey v etnicheskoy istorii xazarii." Vestnik yevreyskogo universiteta v Moskve 8:1 (1995): 61-79.
        Kniaz'kii, I. O. "Rus', Xazariya, Iudaizm." Slaviane i ikh sosedi (Moscow) (1983): 26-28.
        Mikheev, Vladimir Kuz'mich, and Tortika, Aleksander Aleksandrovich. "Yevrey i iudaizm v Xazarskom kaganate: k voprosu o formulirovke sovremennoy nauchnoy kontseptsii xazarskoy istorii." In Xazary: Vtoroi Mezhdunarodnii kollokvium: tezisy, ed. Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin and Artyom M. Fedorchuk, pp. 68-69?. Moscow: Tsentr nauchnyx rabotnikov i prepodavatelei iudaiki v vuzakh "Sefer", Evreiskii universitet v Moskve, and Institut Slavyanovedeniya Rossiiskoy akademii nauk, 2002.
        Naiman, A. Ya. "Yevrey v Xazarskom kaganate." Khazarskiy al'manax 1 (Kharkiv, 2002): 94-109.
        Cross-referenced: Kravchenko, Eduard Ye. and Kul'baka, V. K. "O nakhodke sosuda s graffiti v Mariupole." Arkheologicheskii al'manakh No. 21 (2010): 386-395. Khazar-era artifacts found at Mariupol, including a pot bearing images of a Jewish menorah and a Christian cross.

In Serbo-Croatian:
        Mošin, Vladimir A. "Kad su Hazari prešli na židovsk vjeru?" Riječ 27 xlv (1931).

In Spanish:
        Millás Vallicrosa, José María. "La conversión de los Jazares." Sefarad: Revista de Estudios Hebraicos y Sefardíes 4:1 (1944): 191-194.

In Turkish:
        Golden, Peter Benjamin. "Hazarlar ve Musevilik." In Hazarlar ve Musevilik, ed. Osman Karatay, pp. 23-64. Çorum, Turkey: KaraM Yayınları, 2005.
        Pritsak, Omeljan. "Hazar Hakanlığı'nın Museviliğe Geçişi." Karadeniz Araştırmaları No. 13 (Spring 2007): 15-34. Translation of "The Khazar Kingdom's Conversion to Judaism".
        Zuckerman, Constantine. "Hazarların Museviliğe Geciş Tarihi Üzerine." In Hazarlar ve Musevilik, ed. Osman Karatay, pp. 65-121. Çorum, Turkey: KaraM Yayınları, 2005. Argues that the conversion took place in the 9th century.
        Cross-referenced: Zuckerman, Constantine. "Hazarlarda İkili Yönetimin Kökeni ve Yahudiliğe Geçiş Sartları." In Turkler, vol. 2, eds. Hasan Celal, Kemal Çiçek, and Salim Koca, pp. 481-490. Ankara, Turkey: Yeni Türkiye, 2002.

In Ukrainian:
        Mošin, Vladimir A. "Koly xozary pereyshly na zhydivstvo." Bohosloviya 12 (1934) and 13 (1935).


RELIGION: ISLAM AMONG THE KHAZARS

In Russian:
        (Author?) "O date priniatiya islama khazarmi." In Islam v Povolzhye: Istoriya i problemy izucheniya: Materialy nauchnoy konferentsii 1989 goda, posviashchennoy 1100-letiyu (po khidzhre) ofitsial'nogo priniatiya Islama Volzhskoy Bulgariei, eds. Yakhia Gabdullovich Abdullin and R. M. Amirkhanov. Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia: Iman, 2000. On the date of the Khazar conversion to Islam.


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    Copyright © 1999-2014 by Kevin Alan Brook.