Bibliography of Khazar Studies, 1901-Present
Compiled by Kevin Alan Brook

Section 7: Primary Source Documents

See also The Jews of Khazaria


DOCUMENTS, THE DISCOVERY OF

In English:
       Kahle, Paul Ernst. The Cairo Geniza. London: Oxford University Press, 1947.


DOCUMENTS: THE SCHECHTER LETTER (CAMBRIDGE DOCUMENT)

In English:
        Schechter, Solomon. "An Unknown Khazar Document." Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, 3:2 (1912/1913): 182-219. Contains translation of The Schechter Letter.
        Cross-referenced: (Author?) "Old Manuscripts Reveal a Lost Jewish Kingdom." The New York Times (November 17, 1912). Includes a translation of The Schechter Letter.

In French:
        Mošin, Vladimir A. "Les Khazares et les Byzantins d'après l'Anonyme de Cambridge." Byzantion 6 (1931): 309-325.

In Hungarian:
        Hunyadi, László. "A Schechter-féle szövegi egy névtelen kazár zsidó levele Haszdai ibn Sapruthoz." In Forrasók a korai magyar történelem ismeretéhez, ed. András Róna-Tas, around pp. 162-170. Budapest, Hungary: Balassi Kiadó, 2001.

In Russian:
        Brutzkus, Julius Davidovich. "Pis'mo khazarskogo yevreya ot X v." Yevreyskaya misl' 1 (1922): 31-71.
        Kokovtsov, Pavel Konstantinovich. "Novyi yevreyskii dokument o Xazarax i xazaro-russko-vizantiyskix otnosheniyax v X veke." Zhurnal Ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, n.s. 48:11 (St. Petersburg, November 1913): 150-172. Contains translation of The Schechter Letter.
        Kokovtsov, Pavel Konstantinovich. "Zametka o yevreysko-xazarskix rukopisyax Kembridzha i Oksforda." Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, Series B, Leningrad (1926): around pp. 122.
        Mošin, Vladimir A. "Xel'gu xazarskogo dokumenta." Slavia 15 (Prague, 1938): 191-200. About the story of Oleg, prince of Rus, in The Schechter Letter.
        Cross-referenced: Golb, Norman, and Pritsak, Omeljan. Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982. Second half of book contains translation of The Schechter Letter and commentaries on it. Translated into Russian in 1997 under the title Khazarsko-yevreiskie dokumenty X veka, published by Gesharim of Moscow and Jerusalem in 1997. The Russian edition includes a new essay by Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin.

In Turkish:
        Karatay, Osman. "Hazarların Musevileşmesine Dair Bir Belge: Genize Mektubu." Karadeniz Araştırmaları No. 18 (Summer 2008): 1-17. Contains translation of The Schechter Letter.


DOCUMENTS: THE KIEVAN LETTER

In English:
        Ligeti, Lajos. "The Khazarian Letter from Kiev and its Attestation in Runiform Script." Acta Linguistica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 31 (1981): 5-18.
        Torpusman, Avraham M. "Slavic Names in a Kiev Manuscript from the First Half of the 10th Century." In These Are the Names: Studies in Jewish Onomastics, vol. 2, ed. Aaron Demsky, pp. 171-175. Ramat-Gan, Israel: Bar-Ilan University Press, 1999.

In Hungarian:
        Ligeti, Lajos. "Egy kievi kazár levél és rovásirásos hitelesitése." Magyar Nyelv 80 (1984): 10-17.

In Russian:
        Orel, Vladimir E. "O slavyanskix imenax v yevreysko-xazarskom pis'me iz Kieva." Palaeoslavica 5 (1997): 335-338. Discusses the idea that there are Slavic names in the Kievan Letter.
        Petrukhin, Vladimir Iakovlevich. "Yevrey v Kiev." Rodina No. 4-5 (2002): 50-52. Includes discussion of the Kievan Letter and the origins of the early Jewish community in Kiev.
        Torpusman, Avraham M. "Antroponimiya i mezhetnicheskie kontakty narodev Vostochnoi Yevropy v srednie veka." Imia - etnos - istoriya (Moscow: Institut etnografii) (1989): 48-66. Includes a section titled "Imia Gostiata v yevreyskoy rukopisi iz Kieva pervoi poloviny X veka" which claims that some signatories of the Kievan Letter (Gostyata, Severyata, Kupin) have names of East Slavic origin.
        Cross-referenced: Golb, Norman, and Pritsak, Omeljan. Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982. First half of book contains translation of The Kievan Letter and commentaries on it. Translated into Russian in 1997 under the title Khazarsko-yevreiskie dokumenty X veka, published by Gesharim of Moscow and Jerusalem in 1997. The Russian edition includes a new essay by Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin.


DOCUMENTS: THE KHAZAR CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HASDAI IBN SHAPRUT AND KHAZAR KING JOSEPH

In Danish:
        Svane, Gunnar. Den Kazarisk-andalusiske brevveksling (Hebraiske kilder til Ruslands ældste historie). Arbejdspapir #3. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Universitet, Slavisk Institut, 1993.

In English:
        Cross-referenced: HaLevi, Yehuda. The Kuzari: In Defense of the Despised Faith. Trans. Nissan Daniel Korobkin. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1998. See appendix E (pages 341-357) for translations of the Hasdai and Joseph (Short Version) texts.
        Kobler, Franz, ed. Letters of Jews through the Ages, vol. 1. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1952 and New York: East and West Library, 1978. Pages 97-115 contain translations of Hasdai's query letter and King Joseph's Reply.
        Leviant, Curt, ed. Masterpieces of Hebrew Literature. New York: Ktav, 1969. Pages 164-169 contain a translation of King Joseph's Reply (Short Version) to Hasdai, immediately following a translation of Hasdai's query letter.
        Putík, Alexandr. "Notes on the Name GBLYM in Hasdai's Letter to the Khaquan of Khazaria." In Ibrahim ibn Yakub at-Turtushi: Christianity, Islam and Judaism Meet in East-Central Europe c. 800-1300 A.D.: Proceedings of the International Colloquy 25-29 April 1994, ed. Petr Charvát and J. Prosecký, pp. 169-175. Prague, 1996.
        Cross-referenced: Adler, Elkan Nathan, ed. Jewish Travellers. London: George Routledge and Sons, 1930. The letters of Hasdai and Joseph (Short Version) are contained on pages 22-36.

In French:
        Grégoire, Henri. "Le 'Glozel' Khazare." Byzantion 12 (1937): 225-266. Contains outdated interpretations.

In German:
        Kaplony, Andreas. "Routen, Anschlussrouten, Handelshorizonte im Brief von Hasdáy ben ?aprút an den hazarischen König." In Ibrahim ibn Yakub at-Turtushi: Christianity, Islam and Judaism Meet in East-Central Europe c. 800-1300 A.D.: Proceedings of the International Colloquy 25-29 April 1994, ed. Petr Charvát and J. Prosecký, pp. 140-168. Prague, 1996.

In Hebrew:
        Halpern, Israel. "Ha-Kuzarim ve-Hashevatim ha-Genuzim b'igerret Khasdai Ibn Shaprut el Melekh Kuzar." Zion 18 (1951): 82-84.

In Hungarian:
        Kohn, Sámuel. Héber kutforrások és adatok Magyarország történetéhez. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1990 (reprint edition). Originally published by Zilahy of Budapest in 1881. Hasdai's letter is contained on pages 10-23. Joseph's letter is contained on pages 24-43 (both the Short Version and Long Version). Also contains the text of Yosippon Codex (on pages 3-9).

In Italian:
        Signorini, Alberto. "La Corrispondenza Cazara." Los Muestros: The Sephardic Voice No. 20 (September 1995).

In Polish:
        Lewicki, Tadeusz. "Ze studiów nad tzw. 'Koresponencją chazarską.'" Biuletyn Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego No. 11-12 (1954): 3-16.

In Russian:
        Feygina, S. A. "Istoriyografiya yevreysko-khazarskoy perepiski X v." In Feodal'naya Rossiya vo vsemirno-istoricheskom protsesse: Sbornik statei, ed. Vladimir Terentevich Pashuto et al., pp. 225-234. Moscow: Nauka, 1972.
        Kokovtsov, Pavel Konstantinovich, ed. Yevreysko-xazarskaya perepiska v X veke. Leningrad, 1932. Translations of Short and Long Versions of King Joseph's Reply.

In Spanish:
        Benmaman, Joseph D. "Historia de la extraordinaria vida de Hasdai Ibn Shaprut." Maguen - Escudo 100 (1996): 9-19, 103 (1997): 4-17, 107 (1998): 41-48.

In Turkish:
        Karatay, Osman, and Duranlı, Muvaffak. "Hazar Kağanı Yusuf'un Endülüs'e Mektubu." Bilig 64 (Winter 2013): 199-230.


DOCUMENTS: RESPONSUM OF RABBI YEHUDAH BEN BARZILLAI QUOTING KING JOSEPH

In Hebrew:
        Assaf, Simcha. [R. Yehudah al-Barseloni on the Epistle of Yosef, ha-melekh of ha-Kuzarim] in Yeshurun (Berlin, 1924), pp. 113-117. Reprinted in the book Meqorot wemekhqarim betoldot israel (Jerusalem, 1946) on pp. 91-95, which is followed by an extra commentary on pp. 96-99.


DOCUMENTS: SEFER HA-KUZARI BY YEHUDAH HA-LEVI

In Dutch:
        Halevi, Juda. Kuzari: het boek van de Chazaar. Trans. Rolf Post. Amsterdam: Mastix, 2010.
        Hallevi, Jehoeda. Al-Choezari, het boek van argumentatie en bewijsvoering van een verachte godsdienst. Trans. J. H. Hospers. Amsterdam: Arbeiderspers, 1954.
        Hospers, J. H. "Jehuda Halevi en de Chazaren." Nederlands Theologisch Tijdschrift 21 (1966): 1-15.
        Pinkhof, S. Jehoeda Halevi's "Coezari" en wij. Trans. S. Pinkhof. Bussum, Netherlands: Van Dishoeck, 1923. Selections from Kuzari.

In English:
        HaLevi, Yehuda. The Kuzari: In Defense of the Despised Faith. Trans. Nissan Daniel Korobkin. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1998.
        Halevi, Yehudah. The Kuzari: translated into English from Hakuzari Hameforash. Trans. Kalman Steinberg. Nanuet, NY: Feldheim, 2000.
        Halevi, Yehudah. The Kuzari - Part I and II. Trans. Avraham Yaakov Finkel. Scranton, PA: Yeshivath Beth Moshe, 2000.
        Halevi, Yehudah. The Kuzari - Part III and IV. Trans. Avraham Yaakov Finkel. Scranton, PA: Yeshivath Beth Moshe, 2000.
        Halevi, Judah. The Kuzari: An Argument for the Faith of Israel. Trans. Hartwig Hirschfeld. New York: Schocken, 1964.
        Schweid, Eliezer. "The Khazar Motif in Judah Halevi's Sefer ha-Kuzari." In The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives - Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, eds. Peter Benjamin Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas, pp. 279-290. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2007.

In French:
        Hallevi, Juda. Le Kuzari, apologie de la religion méprisée. Trans. Charles Touati. Louvain, France: Verdier et Peeters, 1994.
        Hallévi, Juda. Le livre du Kuzari. Trans. M. Ventura. Paris: Rieder, 1932. Judaïsme, Oeuvres #17.

In Hebrew:
        Halevi, Yehuda. Sefer ha-Kuzari. Berlin: B. Cohen, 1930. Reprint of the 1867 Warsaw edition.

In Hungarian:
        Kuzári: érvek és bizonyítékok konyve a megvetett vallás védelmében. Trans. Miklós Maróth. Piliscsaba, Hungary: Avicenna Közel-Kelet Kutatások Intézete, 2004.

In Italian:
        ha-Lewi, Yehudah. Il re dei Khàzari. Trans. Elio Piattelli. Torino, Italy: Bollati Boringhieri, 1991.

In Russian:
        Galevi, Ieguda. Kuzari. Trans. Golda Lipsh. Jerusalem: Shamir, 1980.

In Spanish:
        Haleví, Yehudá. El Cuzari. Trans. Lázaro Schallman. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial S. Sigal, 1958.
        Ha-Leví, Jehudá. Cuzary. Trans. Jesús Imirizaldu. Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1979.
        Ha-Levi, Yehudá. Cuzary. Diálogo filosófico. Trans. Rabbi Jacob Abendana. Madrid: Victoriano Suárez, 1910. Reissue of a translation from 1663.
        Ha-Levi, Yehuda. El Cuzary. Libro de la prueba y de la demostración en defensa de la religión menospreciada. Trans. Núria Garcia i Amat and Albert Soriano i Blasco. Barcelona: Ediciones Indigo, 2001.


DOCUMENTS: OTHER JEWISH SOURCES

In English:
        Adler, Elkan Nathan, ed. Jewish Travellers. London: George Routledge and Sons, 1930. Contains translations of the works of Eldad ha-Dani, Rabbi Petakhiah of Ratisbon, and other medieval Jewish writers. Some of the translations in the book are abridged.
        Benjamin of Tudela. The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: Travels in the Middle Ages. Trans. Marcus Nathan Adler. Malibu, CA: Joseph Simon/Pangloss Press, 1987. Benjamin, a 12th century Spanish Jew, briefly remarked about merchants from "Khazaria" in the Middle East, and on Jewish settlement in Kievan Rus.
        Cohen, Gerson David, ed. The Book of Tradition by Abraham ibn Daud. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1967. This work, Sefer ha-qabbalah, composed in 1161, includes a paragraph about the Khazar conversion to Rabbinical Judaism and the correspondence between Hasdai and Joseph.

In French:
        Nahon, Gérard. "Correspondance hébraïque khazare." In Dictionnaire Universel des Littératures, ed. Béatrice Didier, vol. 2, pp. 1888-1889. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1994.

In Hebrew:
        Harkavy, Abraham Elija. "Rab Sa'adyah Gaon al debar ha-Kuzarim." In Semitic Studies in Memory of Rev. Dr. Alexander Kohut, XXXV, ed. G. A. Kohut, pp. 244-247. Berlin: S. Calvary and Co., 1897. Comments by Saadiah Gaon on the Khazars.

In Spanish:
        Ibn Daud, Abraham. Libro de la Tradición (Sefer ha-Qabbalah). Trans. Lola Ferre. Barcelona: Riopiedras Ediciones, 1990. This work, composed in 1161, includes a paragraph about the Khazar conversion to Rabbinical Judaism and the correspondence between Hasdai and Joseph.


DOCUMENTS: ARABIC AND PERSIAN SOURCES

In Arabic:
        Al-Baladhuri, Ahmad ibn Yahya. Kitab Futuh al-Buldan. Ed. R. M. Radwan. Cairo: Maktabat al-Nahdah al-Misriyah, 1959.
        Al-Masudi, Abu al-Hasan `Ali. Muruj adh-Dhahab wa Ma`adin al-Jawhar. Ed. M. Muhi' ad-Din `Abd al-Hamid. Cairo, 1964-1967.
        Ibn al-Nadim, Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Kitab al-Fihrist. Ed. Gustav Flügel. Beirut, 1966.
        Ibn al-Nadim, Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Kitab al-Fihrist. Tehran: Maktabat al-Assadi, 1971.

In English:
        Al-Baladhuri, Ahmad ibn Yahya. The Origins of the Islamic State, being a translation from the Arabic, accompanied with annotations, geographic and historic notes of the Kitab futuh al-buldan of al-Imam Abu-l Abbas, Ahmad ibn-Jabir al-Baladhuri, trans. Francis Clark Murgotten, ed. Philip Khuri Hitti. 2 Volumes. New York: Columbia University, 1916. Beirut: Khayats, 1966. New York: AMS Press, 1968-1969. Translation of Futuh al-buldan.
        Al-Masudi, Abu al-Hasan `Ali. The Meadows of Gold. Trans. Paul Lunde and Caroline Stone. London and New York: Kegan Paul International; distributed by Routledge, Chapman, and Hall, 1989. Translation of Muruj udh-Dhahab wa Maadin ul-Jawahir.
        Al-Muqaddasi, Muhammad ibn Ahmad. The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions: A Translation of Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Marifat al-Aqalim. Trans. Basil Anthony Collins. Reading, UK: Garnet, 1994. Translation of Descriptio Imperii Moslemici.
        Frye, Richard Nelson, ed. and trans. Ibn Fadlan's Journey to Russia: A Tenth-Century Traveler from Baghdad to the Volga River. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2005.
        Ibn al-Nadim, Muhammad ibn Ishaq. The Fihrist of al-Nadim: A Tenth-Century Survey of Muslim Culture. Trans. Bayard Dodge. Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.
        Martinez, Arsenio P. "Gardizi's Two Chapters on the Turks." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 2 (1982): 109-217.
        Minorsky, Vladimir Fedorovich. Hudud al-`Alam (The Regions of the World): A Persian Geography 372 A.D.-982 A.D. London: Messrs. Luzac and Co., 1937. E. J. W. Gibb Memorial, New Series, XI.
        Shapira, Dan D. Y. "Iranian Sources on the Khazars." In The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives - Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, eds. Peter Benjamin Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas, pp. 291-306. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2007.

In French:
        Al-Masudi, Abu al-Hasan `Ali. L'abrege des merveilles, traduit de l'arabe d'apres les manuscrits de la Bibliotheque nationale de Paris par le Bon Carra de Vaux. Paris: C. Klincksieck, 1898.
        Al-Masudi, Abu al-Hasan `Ali. Les prairies d'or. Trans. Charles-Adrien-Casimir Barbier de Meynard and Abel Pavet de Courteille. Paris: Societe asiatique, 1962. Originally published in 1861-1917. Translation of Muruj udh-Dhahab wa Maadin ul-Jawahir.
        Ibn Fadlan, Ahmad. Voyage chez les Bulgares de la Volga. Trans. Marius Canard. Paris: Sindbad, 1988.
        Molé, Marijan, ed. La légende de Zoroastre selon les textes pehlevis. Paris: C. Klincksieck, 1967. Includes a section that attacks the Mosaic beliefs of the Khazars as well as other religions.

In German:
        Al-Bakri. Kitab mu'jam ma ista' jam, Das geographische Worterbuch des Abu 'Obeid 'Abdullah ben 'Abd el-'Aziz el-Bekri: Nach den Handschriften zu Leiden, Cambridge, London und Mailand, ed. Ferdinand Wustenfeld. Vols. 1 and 2. Osnabruck, Germany: Biblio-Verlag, 1976.
        Göckenjan, Hansgerd, and Zimonyi, István. Orientalische Berichte über die Völker Osteuropas und Zentralasiens im Mittelalter: Die Gayhani-Tradition. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz, 2001. Collection of medieval Persian and Arab sources related to Khazars and other steppe tribes, translated into German.
        Ibn Fadlan, Ahmad. Ibn Fadlans Reisebericht. Trans. Ahmed Zeki Velidi Togan. Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus, 1939, in Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Band 24, Nr. 3.

In Hungarian:
        Pauler, Gyula, and Szilágyi, Sandor. A magyar honfoglalás kútföi. Budapest: Nap, 1995. Originally published in 1900 by Magyar tudomanyos akademia of Budapest. Contains a number of useful translations from Arabic sources.

In Persian:
        Ibn Rustah, Ahmad ibn Umar. al-Alaq al-nafisah. Maruf bih Ibn Rustah. Tarjamah va taliq-i Husayn Qarah'chanlu. Tehran, Iran: Amir Kabir, 1986. Ibn Rustah's geographic work contains second-hand knowledge of the Khazars, Magyars, Slavs, and other peoples.

In Polish:
        Chwilkowska, Eva. "Wiadomosci perskiego pisarza Gardizi'ego (XI W.) o ludach wschodniej i srodkowej Europy." Slavia Antiqua 25 (1978): 141-172. Discusses the work of Abd-al Hayy ibn al-Dahhak Gardizi as it relates to the Khazars and the history of the Slavs and Rus.

In Russian:
        Ibn al'-Mas'udi, Abu-l-Hasan 'Ali ibn al-Husain. Zolotye kopi i rossipi samotsvetov. Trans. Dmitrii Valentinovich Mikulskii. Moscow: Natalis, 2002.
        Ibn Fadlan, Ahmad. Kniga Akhmeda Ibn Fadlana o ego puteshestvii na Volgu v 921-922 gg. Stat'i, perevody i kommentarii. Trans. A. P. Kovalevskii. Kharkov, Ukraine, 1956.

In Turkish:
        Al-Baladhuri, Ahmad ibn Yahya. Futuhu'l-buldan (Ulkelerin fetihleri) by el-Balazuri, ceviren Mustafa Fayda. Ankara: Kultur ve Turizm Bakanligi, 1987. Translation of Futuh al-buldan.
        Seşen, Ramazan. Islâm Cografyacilarïna Göre Türkler ve Türk Ülkeleri. Ankara: Türk Kültürünü Arastirma Enstitüsü, 1985. Translations of many Islamic sources.


DOCUMENTS: ARMENIAN, GEORGIAN, AND SYRIAC SOURCES

In English:
        Bedrosian, Robert Gregory, ed. K'art'lis C'xovreba (The Georgian Chronicle). New York: Sources of the Armenian Tradition, 1991.
        Czeglédy, Károly. "Pseudo-Zacharias Rhetor on the Nomads." In Studia Turcica, ed. Lajos Ligeti, pp. 133-148. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1971. A Syriac source on the steppe peoples.
        Movses Dasxuranci. History of the Caucasian Albanians. Trans. C. J. F. Dowsett. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.
        Shapira, Dan D. Y. "Armenian and Georgian Sources on the Khazars: A Re-Evaluation." In The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives - Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, eds. Peter Benjamin Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas, pp. 307-352. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2007.

In French:
        Peeters, Paul. "Les Khazars dans la Passion de S. Abo de Tiflis." Analecta Bollandiana 52 (1934): 21-56.

In German:
        Altheim, Franz, and Stiehl, Ruth. "Michael der Syrer über das erste Auftreten der Bulgaren und Chazaren." Byzantion 28 (1959): 105-118. References to Bulgars and Khazars in the 12th-century Syriac chronicle written by Michael Syrus.
        Czeglédy, Károly. "Bemerkungen zur Geschichte der Chazaren." Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 13:3 (1961): 239-251. About Syrian and Armenian sources concerning Khazars.
        John, son of Sabanis. Das Martyrium des Heiligen Abo von Tiflis. Trans. K. Schultze. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1905. Translation of the Passion of Saint Abo.
        Pätsch, Getrud, trans. Das Leben Kartli's. Eine Chronik aus Georgien, 300-1200. Leipzig: Dieterich, 1985. Translation of The Georgian Chronicle.


DOCUMENTS: BYZANTINE SOURCES

In Armenian:
        Theophanes the Confessor. Teopanes Khostovanogh. Targmanutyun bnagrits, arajaban, ev tsanotagrutyunner Hrach Bartikyani. Erevan, Armenia: Haykakan SSH GA Hratarakchutyun, 1983. Translation of Theophanes' Chronographia.

In English:
        Constantine Porphyrogenitus. De Administrando Imperio. Ed. György Moravcsik. Trans. R. J. H. Jenkins. Budapest, 1949. Also printed in 1967. Reprint: Baltimore: Dumbarton Oaks Publishing Service, 1985 (revised edition), 1993. Composed circa 950 by a Byzantine emperor, this work discusses events and military strategies involving the nations surrounding Byzantium, including Khazaria, Alania, and Hungary.
        Howard-Johnston, James Douglas. "Byzantine Sources for Khazar History." In The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives - Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, eds. Peter Benjamin Golden, Haggai Ben-Shammai, and András Róna-Tas, pp. 163-193. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2007.
        Nicholas I Patriarch of Constantinople. Letters. Eds. and trans. R. J. H. Jenkins and L. G. Westerink. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, 1973. Also includes Greek text.
        Theophanes the Confessor. The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor: Byzantine and Near Eastern History, A.D. 284-813. Trans. Cyril Mango and Roger Scott. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press and New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. A recent translation of Theophanes' Chronographia.

In French:
        Constantine Porphyrogenitus. Le livre des cérémonies, ed. and trans. by Albert V. Vogt. 2 volumes. Paris: Bude, 1935, 1939-1940; also printed in 1967. Translation of De Ceremoniis Aulae Byzantinae.

In Russian:
        Petrukhin, Vladimir Iakovlevich. "Xazariya, vengry i Rus' u Konstantina Bagryanorodnogo: tezisy k novomu kommentariyu." In Xazary: Vtoroi Mezhdunarodnii kollokvium: tezisy, ed. Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin and Artyom M. Fedorchuk, pp. 78-81? Moscow: Tsentr nauchnyx rabotnikov i prepodavatelei iudaiki v vuzakh "Sefer", Evreiskii universitet v Moskve, and Institut Slavyanovedeniya Rossiiskoy akademii nauk, 2002. Analysis of statements by Constantine Porphyrogenitus about Khazars, Magyars, and Rus'.
        Theophanes the Confessor. Zhizneopisaniia vizantiiskikh tsarei. Prodolzhatel' Feofana. Izdanie podgotovil IA. N. Liubarskii. Saint Petersburg: Nauka, 1992. Translation of Theophanes' Chronographia.


DOCUMENTS: RUSSIAN SOURCES

In English:
        Cross, Samuel Hazzard and Sherbowitz-Wetzor, Olgerd P., eds. and trans. The Russian Primary Chronicle: The Laurentian Text. Cambridge, MA: Mediaeval Academy of America, 1953.
        Ostrowski, Donald, ed. The Povest' Vremennykh Let: An Interlinear Collation and Paradosis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, 2000.
        Riasanovsky, Alexander V., and Watson, William E., eds. Readings in Russian History. Vol. 1. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1991.
        Walsh, Warren Bartlett. Readings in Russian History. Vol. 1: From Ancient Times to Nicholas I. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1963.
        Zenkovsky, Serge A., ed. Medieval Russia's Epics, Chronicles, and Tales. New York: Meridian, 1974.

In Russian:
        Poviest vremennyx lyet'. Vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
        Poviest' vremennykh' lyet'. Vol. 1. The Hague: Mouton and Co., 1969.


DOCUMENTS: MISCELLANEOUS

In English:
        Dawson, Christopher Henry, ed. The Mongol Mission: Narratives and Letters of the Franciscan Missionaries in Mongolia and China in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. New York: Sheed and Ward, 1955. Includes a translation of a travelog by Joannes de Plano Carpini which refers to the "Gazari" people.
        Lin, Ying. "Some Chinese Sources on the Khazars and Khwarazm." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 11 (2000-2001): 339-364.
        Shirota, Shun. "The Chinese Chroniclers of the Khazars: Notes on Khazaria in Tang Period Texts." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 14 (2005): 231-261.

In Italian:
        Joannes de Plano Carpini. Historia Mongalorum: viaggio di f. Giovanni da Pian del Carpine ai Tartari nel 1245-47. Ed. and trans. G. Pullé. Firenze, Italy, 1913.


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