Turkic Republics and Communities

Türk cumhuriyetleri ve Türk halklari — Törki xalıqlar wä Törki cömhüriätlär — Türk Republiken und Gemeinschaften — Tyurkskie strany i narodnosti

The most complete guide to the Turkic world

Last Updated: January 21, 2016

Books in Print

Video Documentaries

With listings organized by country or region for...
Hotels • Tourism Agencies • Banks • Businesses • Governmental Institutions
Universities • Newspapers • Radio Stations • Libraries • Culture • Music
...and more!

  • ALTAI in Russia - Altai Turks
  • AZERBAIJAN - Azeris
  • BASHKORTOSTAN (BASHKIRIA) in Russia - Bashkirs
  • CHUVASHYA (CHUVASHISTAN) in Russia - Chuvashes
  • CRIMEA in Russia - Crimean Tatars
  • DAGHESTAN in Russia - Kumyks, Nogais
  • GAGAUZIA (GAGAUZ-YERI) in Moldova - Gagauz Turks
  • KABARDINO-BALKARIA in Russia - Balkars
  • KARACHAI-CHERKESSIYA in Russia - Karachays
  • KHAKASIA in Russia - Khakas
  • KYRGYZSTAN - Kyrgyzes
  • SAKHA (YAKUTIA) in Russia - Yakuts
  • TATARSTAN in Russia - Volga Tatars
  • TÜRKIYE (TURKEY) - Anatolian Turks
  • TURKMENISTAN - Turkmens
  • TUVA (TYVA) in Russia - Tuvans
  • UZBEKISTAN (including KARAKALPAKSTAN) - Uzbeks, Karakalpaks


    Current Events, Business, and Politics
  • The Times of Central Asia - daily news
  • Central Asian-American Enterprise Fund
  • Eurasia Research Center
  • Central Asia and the Caucasus: Journal of Social and Political Studies
  • Central Asia News.net
  • International Institute for Caspian Studies
  • Institute for War and Peace Reporting: Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia
  • Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst
  • Trend - news from the Caspian, South Caucasus, and Central Asia

    Environmental Issues

  • Requiem for the Dying Aral Sea

    History, Archaeology, and Culture

  • Khazaria.com (The American Center of Khazar Studies)
  • An Introduction to the History of Khazaria
  • The Khazar Fortress of Sarkel
  • Khazaria Image Gallery
  • Excerpts from the Letters of Hasdai ibn Shaprut and King Joseph
  • Khazars and Bulgars
  • Khazaria (586-1083 AD) - essay by Dennis Leventhal and Chris Brantley
  • The Khazars - essay by Peter Wolfe and Jeff Zolitor
  • The Khazars - essay by Avraham Revello
  • The Khazars - essay by Steven Lowe
  • Military History Encyclopedia on the Web: Khazar Khaganate - essay by Tristan Dugdale-Pointon
  • Khazarskiy Kaganat - in Russian
  • Istoriya Astrakhani: Khazarskiy kaganat - in Russian
  • Istorie Evreiasca: Povestea Kazarilor - in Romanian
  • Enzyklopä des Europäischen Ostens: Chasaren, -Reich, -Khaghanat - in German
  • History Bookshop: Khazars
  • Encyclopedia of Russian History: Khazars - article by Roman K. Kovalev
  • Columbia Encyclopedia: Khazars
  • Wielka Internetowa Encyklopedia Multimedialna: Chazarowie
  • Entsiklopediya Krugosvet: Khazary
  • Silk Road Seattle
  • Silk Road Seattle Project: Traditional Cultures in Central Asia
  • 1100th Anniversary of Hungarian Settlement in Central Europe
  • History of Central Asia, Part 1
  • History of Central Asia, Part 2
  • The History of Costume - Late 19th Century Central Asia - Uzbeks and Turkmen
  • The History of Costume - Late 19th Century Central Asia - Eastern Turkestan
  • The History of Costume - Late 19th Century Asiatic Russia - Kyrgyzian and Siberian
  • The History of Costume - Late 19th Century Asiatic Russia - Bashkirs and Tatars
  • The History of Costume - Late 19th Century Crimean Tatars
  • Xazarskiy kostyum VII-X vv. - essay by Aleksey Tselikovskiy about Khazarian and North Caucasian costumes
  • Ancient Tangriqut Rulers of Western and Eastern Huns
  • Turks in China
  • The Western Turks
  • Bulgar History
  • Weapons Used by the Bulgars
  • Kutriguri Way of Battle
  • Hunno-Bulgar Religion and Spirituality
  • History of the Proto-Bulgarians North and West of the Black Sea
  • Inscription and Alphabet of the Proto-Bulgarians
  • Language of the Asparukh and Kuber Bulgars, Vocabulary and Grammar
  • Birth of Great Bulgaria
  • Khan Kubrat, ruler of the Turkic Bulgars
  • Khan Asparoukh, first Turkic ruler of Danubian Bulgaria
  • Expansion of the Bulgarian State to the South of the Danube
  • Tatarstan History - Volga Bulgaria
  • Volga Bulgaria - archaeology of Volga Bulgaria (version in Russian: Volzhskaya Bulgariya)
  • Medieval Scholars and Writers from Volga Bulgaria - in Russian
  • Rulers of Russia (including Volga Bulgaria)
  • About Volgo - Kama Bulgaria in the Middle Ages - essay by George Genoff
  • Columbia Encyclopedia: Bulgars, Eastern
  • Old-Turkic Deities - book chapter by Rafael Bezertinov
  • Sakaliba are Kipchaks, and Bulgars are One of Kipchak Tribe - rather strange article
  • TANGRA TanNakRa - Bulgarian history
  • The Turki, Khazars, Bulgars, Polovtsy, and Pereshchepina Treasure
  • Nomad-Sedentary Politics in Medieval Russia - essay by Mark J. Janselewitz
  • The Turkic Kipchaks of Medieval Eurasia
  • The Codex Cumanicus - essay by Peter B. Golden
  • Cumans (1054-1394 AD)
  • Pechenegs (850-1122 AD)
  • Of the Pechenegs, by Constantine Porphyrogenitus
  • The Pechenegs - essay by Steven Lowe and Dmitriy Ryaboy
  • Pechenegy - in Russian
  • The Lay of Igor's Raid - story about Rus' battle against Cumans
  • The Song of Igor's Campaign - another translation of this story
  • Turkish Mythology
  • Alpamysh and the Turkic Dastan Genre - book chapter by H.B. Paksoy
  • The Bald Boy Keloglan and the Most Beautiful Girl in the World - by H.B. Paksoy
  • The Seljuqs of the Rum - essay by Steven Lowe
  • Bashiri Working Papers on Central Asia and Iran - essays by Iraj Bashiri
  • Peoples of Early Russian History - in Russian
  • Barbarians - rulers of the Hsiung-nu, Golden Horde, Cumans, Alans, Khazars, more
  • The Crimea - rulers of the Crimea
  • In Die Welt der Steppenreiter - German site about Central Asian steppe-culture
  • Role of Lower Volga Region in Development of Trade and Interaction of Cultures on the Great Volga Way - Russian essay by P.V. Kazakov


  • Western (Oguz) Turkic Languages
  • Central (Kipchak) Turkic Languages
  • Eastern (Chagatay) Turkic Languages
  • Ural Mountains Turkic Languages
  • Siberian Turkic Languages
  • Orkhon Alphabet of the Ancient Turks of Central Asia
  • The Mystery of the Futhark Alphabet - runic writing in Scandinavia
  • A székely-magyar rovásírás - Hungarian essay on Székely runes
  • Oriëntaal's Links to Turkic Languages
  • Minority Languages of Russia on the Net: Turkic Languages
  • CenAsiaNet's Advanced Lessons in Kazak, Turkmen, Uzbek
  • Learn Turkish-Tatar-English
  • Shorica - learn Shor language, in Russian
  • Linguaturka.com - searchable dictionaries for word conversions between English, Turkish, Azeri, Tatar, Uyghur, Tuvan


  • Imagina: Central Asian Collection of Music
  • Sevara Nazarkhan - Uzbek musician's official site
  • Yulduz Usmanova's Official Site - famous Uzbek singer
  • The Pop Life: Uzbekistan Dreams Made of Music
  • Multicultural Media
  • Azerbaijan International's Audio Section
  • Scimitar Records
  • Eurasian Music by Turkish Musician Murat Ses
  • The Musical Nomad: A Central Asian Music Travellogue from 1997
  • Turkic Peoples' Music


  • Routledge: Asian Studies
  • KaraM Arastirmalari Merkezi
  • Turko-Tatar Press
  • Central Eurasian Studies Review (CESR)
  • The Voice of Greater Central Asia
  • Buchversand Krieger - bookshop for literature about Central Asia
  • Kubon and Sagner Buchexport-Import - in German
  • Middle EurAsian Books
  • East View Publications - books, newspapers, and journals from and about Central Asia
  • Ekin Library and Publications
  • Articles on Turkish History by Professor Hasan B. Paksoy
  • Essays on Central Asia, by Professor Hasan B. Paksoy

    Resource Directories and Miscellaneous

  • Central Asia Commerce - directory
  • Silk Road Seattle Project: Cities and Architecture along the Silk Road
  • Tan Wee Cheng's Odyssey: Heart of the Silk Road - Central Asia
  • Bugiad - Bursa, Türkiye
  • Central Eurasian Studies Society (CESS)
  • EurasiaNet.org
  • SOTA's Turkic World
  • Inner Asian and Uralic National Resource Center's Resources for Central Asia
  • Turksib Railway - in Russian
  • Advance: Central Asia Virtual Gallery
  • Red Book: The Turkic Shors
  • Red Book: The Tofalars
  • Tofa Language and Culture - ethnological project
  • Altai-Sayan Language and Ethnography Project
  • Red Book: The Nogays
  • Red Book: The Lithuanian Tatars
  • Iraqi Turkmen Front
  • Arab Gateway: The Turkomans of Iraq
  • Türkmen Halk Partisi - political party for Iraqi Turkmens
  • Türkmeneli Isbirligi ve Kültür Vakfi - in Turkish and English
  • Turkmens of Iran
  • Güney: Azerbaycan Kultur Ocaqi
  • Chuvashes of the Samara Region of Russia
  • Tatars of the Samara Region of Russia
  • The Turkic Groups of Afghanistan (Uzbeks and Turkmens)
  • Afghanistan and Central Asia Research Information
  • The Turkish World Flag and Map Hall
  • Ferghana Valley: In the Middle of the Empires - essay by Johan Gely
  • East-West - Oriental carpets and rugs
  • Emmett Eiland's Oriental Rugs
  • Oriental Rugs and Rug-Weaving in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
  • Oriental Rug Notes: Central Asian and Chinese Rugs - including Uzbek and Kyrgyz rugs
  • Ipek Yolu Silk Road Carpets and Kilims
  • Turkmen Carpets from Afghanistan
  • Seals from Altai to Anatolia - artwork and motifs of Central Asia and Turkey
  • The Wild Animals of Turkestan
  • Photography of Central Asia
  • Akihito Koriyama's Gallery of Central Asian Photographs - images of Uyguristan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan
  • The Empire That Was Russia: Ethnic Diversity
  • From Baltic To The Black Sea: A Journey Across The Frontier Lands of Europe
  • Ahyskinskii (Meshetinskii) Turks: Twice-Deported People - in Russian
  • Meskhetian Turks: Twice Deported People - in English
  • North Caucasian Bibliography and Library
  • Celebrating the Life of Ismail Bey Gaspirali
  • TsentrAziya - in Russian
  • Scouting in Central Asia and the Caucasus
  • The Silk Road Project, Inc.
  • Travel Along Central Asia - Web portal about Central Asia and tourism
  • SpecialDepartures.com - Travel Information and Tour Brochure Distribution
  • Silk Road Treasure Tours - travel to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, and beyond
  • Asia Silk Tours - Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan
  • The Oriental Caravan - travelers' tours to Turkmenistan and the Silk Road
    Family Tree DNA - Genetic testing service
    Family Tree DNA: Genetic Testing Service
    Get genetically tested to discover your relationship to other families and Turkic peoples

    This website, Turkic Republics and Communities, is recommended on page 12 of the 3rd edition of Lonely Planet Central Asia (2004) with the description "Music, books and excellent links for the entire Turkic world." Repeated on page 23 of the 4th edition.
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