Bibliography of Khazar Studies, 1901-Present
Compiled by Kevin Alan Brook

Section 1: Introductory Works


In Bulgarian:
        Zhivkov, Boris. Khazaria prez IX i X vek. Sofia, Bulgaria: IK Gutenberg, 2010. Translated into English under the title Khazaria in the 9th and 10th Centuries, translated by Daria Manova, published in Leiden, Netherlands by Brill Academic Publishers in 2015.

In Chinese:
        Gui, Baoli. Kěsà tūjué. Lanzhou Shi, China: Lánzhōu dàxué chūbǎn shè, 2013.

In English:
        Ajzenstadt, Michael. "An Incredible Journey to the Lost Empire of the Khazars." The Jerusalem Post (March 17, 1997): 5. An article about the travels of Ehud Ya'ari's documentary team.
        Barthold, Vasilii Vladimirovich, and Golden, Peter Benjamin. "Khazar." In The Encyclopedia of Islam, vol. 4, pp. 1172-1181. Leiden and London, 1978.
        Brook, Kevin Alan. The Jews of Khazaria (1st edition). Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1999. Translated into Turkish under the title Bir Türk İmparatorluğu: Hazar Yahudileri, translated by İsmail Tulçali, published in Istanbul by Nokta Kitap in 2005. 2nd edition published in English in Lanham, MD by Rowman and Littlefield in 2006. 3rd edition published in English in Lanham, MD by Rowman and Littlefield in 2018.
        Brook, Kevin Alan. "A Brief History of the Khazars." In The Kuzari: In Defense of the Despised Faith, Korobkin edition, pp. xxv-xxxi. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1998. Revised version of the essay on pp. 31-40 in 2nd edition of The Kuzari, published in Jerusalem, Israel and Nanuet, NY by Feldheim Publishers in 2009.
        Christian, David Gilbert. A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia. Vol. 1: Inner Eurasia from Prehistory to the Mongol Empire. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1998. See especially pages 282-303 of chapter 11.
        De Cordier, Bruno J. "Case Study 1: The Imprint of the Khazars." In The European Handbook of Central Asian Studies: History, Politics, and Societies, eds. Jeroen J. J. Van den Bosch, Adrien Fauve, and Bruno J. De Cordier, pp. 925-928. Hanover, Germany: ibidem Verlag, 2021.
        Dunlop, Douglas Morton. "Aspects of the Khazar Problem." Transactions of the Glasgow University Oriental Society 12 (1951): 33-44.
        Dunlop, Douglas Morton. The History of the Jewish Khazars. New York: Schocken, 1967 and Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1954. Translated into Persian under the title [The History of Khazaria from Its Inception to Its Demise] and published in Tehran in 2003 by Qoqnus Publishing. Translated into Turkish under the title "Hazar yahudi tarihi" and published in Istanbul in 2008 by Selenge yayınları. Translated into Russian under the title "Istoriya khazar-iudeev: religiya vysshikh klanov" and published in Moscow in 2016 by Tsentrpoligraf.
        Dunlop, Douglas Morton. "The Khazars." In The Dark Ages: Jews in Christian Europe, 711-1096, ed. Cecil Roth and I. H. Levine, pp. 325-356. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1966. World History of the Jewish People, second series, vol. 2.
        Dunlop, Douglas Morton. "Khazars." In Encyclopedia Judaica, vol. 10, pp. 945-954. Jerusalem: Keter, 1971-1972.
        Fedortchouk, Artem. "Khazars." In A Dictionary of Jewish-Christian Relations, ed. Edward Kessler and Neil Wenborn, p. 252. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
        Feldman, Alex Mesibov. "Khazaria: The Exception Which Proves the Rules." In How Medieval Europe was Ruled, ed. Christian Raffensperger, pp. 41-58. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge, 2023.
        Franklin, Simon, and Shepard, Jonathan. The Emergence of Rus 750-1200. London: Longman, 1996.
        Frenkel, Anna. "The Jewish Empire in the Land of Future Russia." Australian Journal of Jewish Studies 9:1-2 (1995): 142-170.
        Gaster, Moses. "The Chazars." The Sinaist 1:1 (London, 1916): 8-15.
        Golb, Norman, and Pritsak, Omeljan Yósypovych. Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982. Translated into Russian under the title Khazarsko-yevreiskie dokumenty X veka, published by Gesharim of Moscow and Jerusalem in 1997. The Russian edition includes a new essay by Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin.
        Golden, Peter Benjamin. Khazar Studies: An Historico-Philological Inquiry into the Origins of the Khazars. Vol. 1. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1980. Translated into Turkish in 2006 under the title Hazar Çalışmaları, translated by E. Ç. Mizrak, published in Istanbul by Selenge yayınları.
        Golden, Peter Benjamin. "Khazars." In Encyclopedia of Asian History, ed. Ainslie T. Embree, vol. 2, pp. 295-296. New York: Scribner, 1988.
        Golden, Peter Benjamin. "The Khazars of Record." The World and I (November 1988): 368-377.
        Golden, Peter Benjamin. "The Khazars." In The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, ed. Denis Sinor, pp. 263-270. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
        Golden, Peter Benjamin. "Khazars." In Turkish-Jewish Encounters: Studies on Turkish-Jewish Relations through the Ages, ed. Mehmet Tütüncü, pp. 29-49. Haarlem, Netherlands: SOTA, 2001.
        Golden, Peter Benjamin. "Some Notes on the Comitatus in Medieval Eurasia with Special Reference to the Khazars." Russian History/Histoire russe 28:1-4 (2001): 153-170. Festschrift in Honor of Thomas S. Noonan, Vol. 1, eds. Roman K. Kovalev and Heidi M. Sherman.
        Golden, Peter Benjamin. "Khazar Turkic Ghulâms in Caliphal Service." Journal Asiatique 292:1-2 (2004): 279-309. About ghulâms of Khazar origin who were in service to the Abbasid Caliphate.
        Golden, Peter Benjamin. "Khazaria." In The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, vol. 1, eds. Gershom David Hundert, et al., pp. 888-890. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.
        Golden, Peter Benjamin. "Khazar Khaganate." In The Encyclopedia of Empire, vol. 3, ed. John M. MacKenzie, pp. ?-?. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2016.
        Gottesman, Brian Michael. "The Empire of the Khazars." In World History Encyclopedia, Era 4: Expanding Regional Civilizations, 300-1000, ed. Wilfred J. Bisson, et al. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2011.
        Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. "Khazaria and Caspian: (Landscape and Ethnos, Part I)." Soviet Geography 5:6 (New York, 1964): 54-68.
        Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. "Khazaria and Terek: (Landscape and Ethnos, Part II)." Soviet Geography 7:2 (New York, 1966): 14-26.
        Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. "Khazaria and Caspian." The Geographical Review 60:3 (New York, 1970): 367-377.
        Herbst, Matthew T. "Khazars." In The Byzantine Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia, ed. James Francis LePree, vol. 1, pp. 285-287. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2019.
        Jacobs, Louis. "Khazars." In Oxford Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion, p. 124. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1999.
        Klyashtorny, Sergei Grigorievich. "The Asian Aspect of the Early Khazar History." In Florilegia Altaistica: Studies in Honour of Denis Sinor on the Occasion of his 90th Birthday, eds. Elena Vladimirovna Boikova and Giovanni Stary, pp. 61-67. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2006.
        Koestler, Arthur. The Thirteenth Tribe: The Khazar Empire and Its Heritage. London: Hutchinson and Co., 1976 and New York: Random House, 1976. Translated into French in 1976, into German in 1977/1991, into Turkish in 1977/1984, into Greek in 1978, into Italian in 1980, into Spanish in 1980, into Persian in 1982/1983, into Romanian in 1987 and 2002, into Hungarian in 1990, into Japanese in 1990, into Swedish in 1992, into Serbo-Croatian in 1997 and 2000, into Russian in 1998 and 2001, into Hebrew in 1999, into Portuguese in 2005, and into Bulgarian in 2006.
        Kovalev, Roman K. "Khazars." In Encyclopedia of Russian History, vol. 2, eds. James R. Millar, et al., pp. 739-740. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004.
        Kramers, J. M. (A lecture on the Khazars.) Analecta Orientalia 1 (Leiden, 1954): 130-143.
        Lasker, Daniel J. "Khazars." In The Encyclopedia of Judaism, ed. Geoffrey Wigoder, p. 414. New York: Macmillan, 1989.
        Lvov, Arkady. "Shades of Forgotten Ancestors." Midstream 29:2 (February 1983): 49-54.
        Meerts, Paul Willem. "Assessing Khazaria." International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) Newsletter No. 34 (July 2004): 15.
        Noonan, Thomas Schaub. "Nomads and Sedentarists in a Multi-Ethnic Empire: The Role of the Khazars in the Khazar Khaganate." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 15 (2006/2007): 107-?.
        Obolensky, Dimitry. "The Crimea and the North before 1204." Archion Pontou 35 (1979): 123-133.
        Petrukhin, Vladimir Iakovlevich. "The Decline and Legacy of Khazaria." In Europe around the Year 1000, ed. Przemysław Urbańczyk, pp. 109-122. Warsaw: DiG, 2001.
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. "The Khazars." In Peoples That Vanished, ed. Pavel Ivanovich Puchkov, trans. Ye. Voronov, pp. 49-60. Moscow: Nauka, 1989.
        Pritsak, Omeljan Yósypovych. "Khazars." In Dictionary of the Middle Ages, vol. 7, pp. 240-242. New York: Scribner, 1986.
        Pritsak, Omeljan Yósypovych. "Khazaria." In The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, ed. Alexander P. Kazhdan, vol. 2, pp. 1126-1127. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
        Pritsak, Omeljan Yósypovych. "Khazars." In The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, ed. Alexander P. Kazhdan, vol. 2, p. 1127. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
        Richard, Jean. "Khazars." In Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, ed. André Vauchez, vol. 1, p. 801. Chicago and London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000.
        Rosenthal, Herman. "Chazars." In The Jewish Encyclopedia, vol. 4, pp. 1-7. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1901-1906 and New York: Ktav, 1964.
        Shapira, Dan D. Y. "Some Notes on Jews and Turks." Karadeniz Araştırmaları No. 16 (Winter 2008): 25-38.
        Shapira, Dan D. Y. "Khazars." In Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 16, Fascicle 5, pp. 511-528. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2019.
        Soteri, Nicholas. "Khazaria: A Forgotten Jewish Empire." History Today 45:4 (April 1995): 10-12.
        Starr, Joshua. "Khazars." In Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, ed. Isaac Landman, vol. 6, pp. 375-378. New York, 1948.
        Weinryb, Bernard Dov. "Solving the Khazar Problem. A Study in Soviet Historiography." Judaism 13:4 (Fall 1964): 431-443.
        Ya'ari, Ehud. "Skeletons in the Closet." The Jerusalem Report 6:9 (Sept. 7, 1995): 26-30. Ya'ari, an Israeli journalist, describes his television film crew's expedition to Khazaria during the mid-1990s and presents a fairly good summary of Khazarian history.
        Ya'ari, Ehud. "Archaeological Finds Add Weight to Claim that Khazars Converted to Judaism." The Jerusalem Report 10:4 (June 21, 1999): 8. Discusses the Khazar studies conference that was held in Jerusalem during May 24-28, 1999.
        Yücel, Muallâ Uydu. "The Khazar Empire." In The Turks, vol. 1, eds. Hasan Celâl Güzel, C. Cem Oguz, and Osman Karatay, pp. 491-508. Ankara, Turkey: Yeni Türkiye, 2002.
        Zhirohov, Mikhail Aleksandrovich, and Nicolle, David. The Khazars: A Judeo-Turkish Empire on the Steppes, 7th-11th Centuries AD. Oxford, England: Osprey, 2019. Translated into Polish under the title Chazarowie : judeo-tureckie imperium stepowe (VII-XI wiek) and published in Oświęcim, Poland in 2019 by Napoleon V.
        Zhukovsky, Arkadii. "Khazars." In Encyclopedia of Ukraine, ed. Volodymyr Kubijovyc, vol. 2, pp. 462-463. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988.
        (Author?) "Old Manuscripts Reveal a Lost Jewish Kingdom." The New York Times (November 17, 1912).

In French:
        Baschmakoff, Alexandre. "Une solution nouvelle du problème des Khazares. Leur origine et la raison de leur judaïsation." Mercure de France 229 (1931): 39-73.
        Gourand, Jean-Louis. "Quelques propos cavaliers sur les Khazars." In L'Empire khazar VIIe-XIe siècle: L'enigme d'un peuple cavalier, eds. Jacques Piatigorsky and Jacques Sapir, pp. 117-142. Paris: Autrement, 2005.
        Halter, Marek. "Prologue. Sur les traces des Khazars." In L'Empire khazar VIIe-XIe siècle: L'enigme d'un peuple cavalier, eds. Jacques Piatigorsky and Jacques Sapir, pp. 5-13. Paris: Autrement, 2005.
        Jean-Baptiste, Patrick. "Une nouvelle histoire des Khazars: Le royaume juif de la Volga." Sciences et Avenir No. 650 (April 2001): 123-127.
        Sorlin, Irène. "Le problème des Khazares et les historiens soviétiques dans les vingt dernières années." Travaux et Mémoires du Centre de recherche d'histoire et civilisation byzantine 3:51 (1968): 423-455.
        Szyszman, Simon. "Les Khazars. Problèmes et controverses." Revue de l'histoire des religious 152:2 (Paris: October-December 1957): 174-221.
        Szyszman, Simon. "Découverte de la Khazarie." Annales: économies, sociétés, civilisations 25:3 (Paris, 1970): 818-821.
        Terechtchenko, Alexei. "Que sait-on des Khazars ou état des lieux historique d'un peuple oublié." In L'Empire khazar VIIe-XIe siècle: L'enigme d'un peuple cavalier, eds. Jacques Piatigorsky and Jacques Sapir, pp. 35-78. Paris: Autrement, 2005.
        Weill, Nicolas. "L'histoire retrouvée des Khazars." Le Monde (July 9, 1999): 12. Discusses the Khazar studies conference that was held in Jerusalem during May 24-28, 1999, and various scholarship in the Khazar field.

In German:
        Aufgebauer, Peter. "Chasaren." In Neues Lexikon des Judentums, ed. Julius H. Schoeps, p. 92. München, Germany: Bertelsmann-Lexikon-Verlag, 1992.
        Bart'old, Vasilii Vladimirovich. "al-Khazar." In Enzyklopädie des Islam: Geographisches, ethnographisches und biographisches Wörterbuch der muhammedanischen Völker, vol. 2, eds. Martijn Theodoor Houtsma, et al., pp. 1003-1005. Leiden: Brill, 1927.
        Baschmakoff, Alexandre. "Neues über die Chazaren." Litterae Orientales: orientalistischer Literaturbericht No. 58 (Leipzig, Germany, April 1934): 4-6.
        Brutzkus, Julius Davidovich. "Chasaren." In Encyclopaedia Judaica: Das Judentum in Geschichte und Gegenwart, vol. 5, col. 337-350. Berlin: Eschkol, 1930.
        Kmoskó, Mihály. "Araber und Chasaren." Kõrösi Csoma-Archivum 1:4 (Budapest, 1924): 280-292, 1:5 (Budapest, 1925): 356-368.
        Kutschera, Hugo von. Die Chasaren: historische Studie. Vienna: A. Holzhausen, 1910.
        Landau, Maximilian. Beiträge zum Chazarenproblem. Breslau: Stefan Munz Jüdischer Buchverlag, 1938.
        Ludwig, Dieter. "Chazaren." In Lexikon des Mittelalters, vol. 2, pp. 1783-1788. München, Germany: Artemis, 1983.
        Meisl, Josef. "Chazaren." In Jüdisches Lexikon, vol. 1, pp. 1346-1350. Berlin: Jüdischer Verlag, 1927.
        Posselt, Alfred H. Geschichte des chazarisch-jüdischen Staates. Vienna: Vereines zur Förderung und Pflege des Reformjudentums, 1982.
        Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes. "Das 'jüdische' Khanat: Geschichte und Religion des Reiches der Chasaren." Karfunkel - Zeitschrift für erlebbare Geschichte Nr. 79 (December 2008-January 2009): 17-22.
        Rolle, R. "Chazaren." In Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, ed. Heinrich Beck, vol. 4, pp. 413-422. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1981.
        Roth, Andreas. Chasaren. Das vergessene Großreich der Juden. Neu Isenburg, Germany: Melzer Verlag, 2006.
        Zeki Validi Togan, Ahmed. "Völkerschaften des Chazarenreiches im neunten Jahrhundert." Kõrösi Csoma-Archivum 3:1 (Budapest, 1940).

In Hebrew:
        Landau, Maximilian. [The Present State of the Khazar Problem]. Zion 8 (Jerusalem, 1942-1943): 94-106.
        Lior, Joshua. Ha-Kuzarim: le-or ha-historiografyah ha-Sovyetit. Ramat-Gan, Israel: Universitat Bar-Ilan, 1973.
        Poliak, Abraham N. Kazariyah: Toldot mamlaxa yehudit be'europa. Tel Aviv, Israel: Mosad Bialik, 1942 (1st edition), 1944 (2nd edition), 1951 (3rd edition). Translated into Polish under the title Chazaria: Dzieje Królostwa Żydowskiego w Europie, published in Przemyśl, Poland by Południowo Wschodni Instytut Naukowy in 2015.
        Simonsohn, Shlomo. "Ha-Khuzarim, mi haiu? ha'im haiu Yehudim? l'an ne'elmu? ma anu yod'im alehem?" Et-mol 23 (135) (1997): 3-5. Summary of Koestler's research on the Khazars' kingdom, their Judaism, and their diaspora.
        Uziel, Meir. "Ha-imperiya ha-yehudit ha-nishkakhat: Kazariya hi akhat ha-khidot ha-gdolot shel ha-historiya." Ma'ariv (May 16, 2002).
        Ya'ari, Ehud. "Ha-masa ha-mufla be-ikvot ha-Kuzarim." Ma'ariv - Sofshavua supplement (March 14, 1997): 32-36.
        Zohori, Menahem. Ha-Kuzarim, hitgayrutam ve-korotehem: ba-sifrut ha-historiyografyah ha-'Ivrit. Jerusalem, 1976 and Jerusalem: Karmel, 2002. The Khazars' conversion and history as detailed in medieval Jewish sources.

In Hungarian:
        Bartha, Miklós. Kazárföldön. Budapest: Stádium, 1939 and London: Hidfo Barati Kore, 1970. Reprinted in Budapest in 1996.
        Czeglédy, Károly. "Ogurok és türkök Kazáriában." In Magyar õstórténeti tanulmányok, szerk. Antal Bartha, Károly Czeglédy, and András Róna-Tas, pp. 59-63. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1977.
        Deutsch, Gábor. "Millecentenáriumi mozaik. Kazár kapcsolat." Új Élet 51 (1996): 16 p.1
        Marmorstein, A. "Új adatok a kazárok történetéhez." Egyetemes philologiai közlöny 38 (1914): 148-152.
        Vékony, Gábor. "A kazár kérdés." Életünk (1992): 919-938.
        Zimonyi, István. "A kazárok szerepe Kelet-Európában." Magyar Tudomány 103 U.F. 41 (1996): 952-957.

In Italian:
        Marturano, Aldo C. Mescekh: Il paese degli ebrei dimenticati. Poggiardo, Italy: Atena, 2004.
        Signorini, Alberto. "Che fine hanno fatto i Cazari di Koestler." Los Muestros: The Sephardic Voice No. 18 (March 1995): 5-10.
        Signorini, Alberto. "Che fine hanno fatto i Cazari di Koestler (2nda parte)." Los Muestros: The Sephardic Voice No. 19 (June 1995).

In Polish:
        Dąbrowski, Krzysztof; Nagrodzka-Majchrzyk, Teresa; and Tryjarski, Edward. Hunowie Europejscy, Protobułgarzy, Chazarowie, Pieczyngowie. Warsaw-Wroclaw-Kraków Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, 1975.
        Dudek, Jarosław. Chazarowie: Polityka - kultura - religia, VII-XI wiek. Poland: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2016.
        Rostkowski, Grzegorz. "Międzynarodowe i wewnętrzne położenie kaganatu chazarskiego w pierwszej połowie X wieku." Mazowieckie Studia Humanistyczne 6:1-2 (2000): 5-24.
        Swoboda, W. "Chazarowie." In Słownik starożytności słowiańskich: encyklopedyczny zarys kultury slowian od czasow najdawniejszych Pod red. Wladyslawa Kowalenki, Gerarda Labudy i Tadeusza Lehra-Splawinskiego. Vol. 1, pp. 238-239. Wroclaw: Zklad Narodowy im. Ossolinskich, 1961.
        Zajączkowski, Ananiasz. "Ze studiów nad zagadnieniem chazarskim." Prace Komisji Orientalistycznej (Kraków) No. 36. Also printed by Kraków: Nakl. Polskiej Akademii Umiejetnosci, 1947.

In Portuguese:
        Finguerman, Ariel. "Um novo livro a respeito dos judeus khazares." Hebraica (Brazil) (May 2007): 62-64. An article about the Khazars including an interview with Kevin Brook, illustrations, and the sidebar "Quem foram os khazares?".

In Russian:
        Afanas'yev, Gennadii Evgenevich. "O territorii khazarskogo kaganata i khazarskogo 'domena' v IX veke." Divnogorskii sbornik 6 (2016): 41-72.
        Aleksin, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich, and Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. "Khazarskaya Atlantida." Aziya i Afrika segodnya (1962) No. 2: 52-53.
        Artamonov, Mikhail Illarionovich. Ocherki drevneishei istorii khazar. Leningrad: Gos. sots-ekon. izd-vo. (Sotsekgiz), 1936. Focuses on the earlier periods of Khazar history.
        Artamonov, Mikhail Illarionovich. Istoriya Xazar. Leningrad: Ermitazha (Hermitage Museum), 1962 and St. Petersburg: Lan', 2001 and St. Petersburg: Peterburgskii gos. universitet. Filologicheskii fakul'tet, 2002. Translated into Turkish under the title Hazar Tarihi: Türkler Yahudiler Ruslar, published in Istanbul by Selenge yayınları in 2004.
        Bart'old, Vasilii Vladimirovich. "Khazary." In Sochineniya, vol. 5. Moscow: Nauka, 1968.
        Belov, Evgenii. "O Xazarax." Russkaya Mysl (Paris, March 21, 1968) No. 2679.
        Charny, Semyon. "600 lyet vmeste i 50 lyet lzhi." Lekhaim 3 (131) (March 2003).
        Fedorov, A. Ia. "Khazariya i Dagestan." Kavkazii etnograficheskii sbornik 5 (1972): 30-31. (Trudy Instituta etnografii, n.s., Tom 99)
        Flyorov, Valerii Sergeevich. "Kollokvium 'Khazary' (Ierusalim, 1999) i 'Kratkaya Yevreyskaya entsiklopediya' o xazarax." Rossiyskaya arkheologiya (2000) No. 3.
        Glashev, Akhmat Alabievich and Klyosov, Anatoly Alekseevich. Khazary. Proiskhozhdenie, DNK, Nasledie. Moscow, Russia: Nashe Zavtra, 2023.
        Goldelman, Menashe. "Khazariya." In Kratkaya Yevreyskaya Entsiklopediya, vol. 9, pp. 522-541. Jerusalem, 1999.
        Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. "Khazariya i Kaspiy (Landshaft i etnos: I)." Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta 1:6 (1964): 83-95.
        Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. "Khazariya i Terek (Landshaft i etnos: II)." Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta 4:24 (1964): 78-88.
        Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. "Sosedi Khazar." Strany i narody Vostoka 7:14 (Moscow, 1965): 127-142.
        Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. Otkrytie Xazarii. Istoriko-geograficheskiy etyud. Moscow: Nauka, Glav. red. vostochnoi lit-ry, 1966. Translated into Czech by Ivan Savicky under the title Obieveni zeme Chazaru and published in Prague in 1971 by Miada Fronta. Translated into Turkish by D. Ahsen Batur under the title Hazar Çevresinde Bin Yil and published in 2002 by Selenge yayınları.
        Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. "Skazanie o Xazarskoy dani (opit kriticheskogo kommentariya)." Russkaya literatura (1974) No. 3.
        Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich, and other Russian scholars. Compiled by A. I. Kurkchi. Sochineniya L. N. Gumileva v 15 Tomakh - Vol. 6: Otkrytie Xazarii. Moscow: Di-Dik, 1996.
        Kaganovich, Al'bert. "Pervaya mezhdunarodnaya konferentsiya po problemam izucheniya istorii xazar." Tsentral'naya Aziya i Kavkaz (1999) No. 4(5). Discusses the Khazar studies conference that was held in Jerusalem during May 24-28, 1999.
        Kalinina, Tat'yana Mikhailovna. Problemy istorii Khazarii (po dannym vostochnyh istochnikov). Moscow: Russkii fond sodeistviya obrazovaniyu i nauke, 2015. Anthology of decades of Kalinina's scholarly articles about the Khazars.
        Kandel, Feliks (Felix) Solomonovich. Ocherki vremen i sobytii: iz istorii rossiiskikh evreev, do vtoroi poloviny vosemnadtsatogo veka. Jerusalem: Assotsiatsiya "Tarbut", 1988. Essays about the history of eastern European Jews from their beginnings until the second half of the 18th century, including material on the Khazars and the Kievan Letter.
        Khainman, Irma. Yevreiskaya diaspora i Rus'. Jerusalem: Irma Khainman, 1983.
        Klimovitsky, Lev. Khazaria: Gosudarstvo synov Israilia v izgnanii. Yevrei i russkie: tysyacha chetyresta let vmeste. Ramla, Israel: M+, 2003. Presents Hebrew, Russian, and other sources on the Khazars, and claims that Khazars descended from Israelites.
        Klyashtornyi, Sergey Grigorievich and Sultanov, T. I. Gosudarstva i Narody Evraziiskikh Stepei: Drevnost i Srednevekove. St. Petersburg: Peterburgskoye Vostokovedenie, 2000.
        Kolobova, Oleg, Ivanov, Valeriy, and Klyutchnikov, Vladimir. Khazary. Moscow: Lomonosov, 2013. (Kolobova and Ivanov are pseudonymed together as "Oleg Ivik" in this book.)
        Kruglov, Yevgenii V. "Khazarskii kaganat v pamiatnikakh arkheologii i po dannym Ibn Fadlana." In Puteshestvie ibn Fadlana: Volzhskii put' ot Bagdada do Bulgara. Katalog vystavki, ed. A. I. Torgoev and Iliya R. Akhmedov, pp. 226-273. Moscow: Izdatel'skii dom Mardzhani, 2016.
        Kruglov, Yevgenii V. "Xazary - istoriya tol'ko nachinaetsya." In Xazary: Vtoroi Mezhdunarodnii kollokvium: tezisy, ed. Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin and Artyom M. Fedorchuk, pp. 61-65? Moscow: Tsentr nauchnyx rabotnikov i prepodavatelei iudaiki v vuzakh "Sefer", Evreiskii universitet v Moskve, and Institut Slavyanovedeniya Rossiiskoy akademii nauk, 2002.
        Magomedov, Murad Gadgievich. Khazary na Kavkaze. Makhachkala, Russia: Dagestanskoye knizhnoye izdatel'stvo, 1994.
        Maniagin, V. G., Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna, and Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. Khazary, ili Tainstvennyi sled v russkoi istorii. Moscow: Algoritm, 2008.
        Marchenko, V. T. Khazary, Mongoly i Rus': Ocherk istorii Evrazii. Moscow, 1993.
        Naumenko, Valery E. "K voprosu o vremeny i obstoyatel'stvax obrazovaniya Xazarskogo kaganata." Khazarskiy al'manax 2 (Kharkiv, 2004): 52-76.
        Novosel'tsev, Anatolii Petrovich. "Xazariya v sisteme mezhdunarodnix otnosheniy VII-IX vv." Voprosy istorii (1987) No. 2: 20-32.
        Novosel'tsev, Anatolii Petrovich. Khazarskii kaganat. Moscow: Lomonosov', 2017.
        Novosel'tsev, Anatolii Petrovich. Khazarskoye gosudarstvo i ego rol' v istorii vostochnoi Yevropy i Kaukaza. Moscow: Nauka, 1990.
        Olshanetzki, I. A. "Koe chto o Xazarskix evreyax." Izvestiya obshchestva isledovaniya i izucheniya Azerbaydzhana (Baku, 1928): 134-140.
        Petrukhin, Vladimir Iakovlevich, and Raevskii, Dmitrii Sergeevich. Ocherki istorii narodov Rossii v drevnosti i rannem srednevekov'e. Moscow: Shkola "Iazyki russkoi kul'tury", 1998. A short history of the peoples of Russia. Chapter 9 (pages 198-225) discuss the Khazars.
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. Khazary. Moscow: Nauka, 1986. Previously published in German under the title Die Chasaren: mittelalterliches Reich an Don und Wolga in Leipzig, Germany in 1978. Translated into Japanese in 1996.
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. "Xazary i Xazarskiy kaganat." In Xazary: Vtoroi Mezhdunarodnii kollokvium: tezisy, ed. Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin and Artyom M. Fedorchuk, pp. 81-84? Moscow: Tsentr nauchnyx rabotnikov i prepodavatelei iudaiki v vuzakh "Sefer", Evreiskii universitet v Moskve, and Institut Slavyanovedeniya Rossiiskoy akademii nauk, 2002.
        Romashov, Sergei A. "Istoricheskaya Geografiya Xazarskogo Kaganata (V-XIII vv.) (Chasti I i II)" Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 11 (2000-2001): 219-338.
        Romashov, Sergei A. "Istoricheskaya Geografiya Xazarskogo Kaganata (V-XIII vv.) (Chast' III i karty)" Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 12 (2002-2003): 81-222.
        Romashov, Sergei A. "Istoricheskaya Geografiya Xazarskogo Kaganata (V-XIII vv.) (Chast' IV i V)" Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 13 (2004): ?-?.
        Romashov, Sergei A. "Istoricheskaya Geografiya Xazarskogo Kaganata (V-XIII vv.) (Chast' VI i VII)" Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 14 (2005): ?-?.
        Rychka, V. [And Khazars Came to Them]. Rodina No. 4-5 (2002): 48-49. About indications of Khazar settlements in the middle Dnieper valley in Slavic-majority cities and villages.
        Semyonov, Igor' Godovich. Istoriya stran i narodov Zapadnogo Prikaspiya: 1-e tysiacheletie novoi ery. Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia: Tan-Zaria, 1994. Discusses Khazars in Daghestan and along Caspian coast.
        Semyonov, Igor' Godovich. "K voprosu ob istoricheskoy geografii Xazarii." In Materialy vos'moy Ezhegodnoy Mezhdunarodnoy Mezhdistsiplinarnoy konferentsii po iudaike, Chast' 1, ed. K. Yu. Burmistrov, Rashid M. Kaplanov, and V. V. Mochalova, pp. 179-190. Moscow: Sefer, 2001.
        Shorokhov, V. A. "Khazarskiy kaganat i sfera ego vliyaniya v IX v. (po dannym 'anonimnoy zapiski' i 'Knigi putey i stran' Ibn Khordadbekha)." Trudy istoricheskogo fakul'teta Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta 2 (2010): 88-98. On Khazaria's sphere of influence during the 9th century.
        Stoliar, A. D. and Vilinbakhov, Georgii, eds. Skify, khazary, slaviane, Drevnyaya Rus: Mezhdunarodnaya nauchnaya konferentsiya, posviashchennaya 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya professora Mikhaila Illarionovicha Artamonova: Sankt-Peterburg, 9-12 dekabria 1998 g.: tezisy dokladov. St. Petersburg, Russia: Izd-vo Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha, 1998. Papers from a conference honoring the late Mikhail Artamonov.
        Tortika, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich. Severo-Zapadnaya Khazariya v kontekste istorii Vostochnoy Yevropy (vtoraya polovina VII -- tretia chetvert X vv.). Khar'kov, Ukraine: Khar'kovskaya gosudarstvennaya akademiya kul'tury, 2006.

In Spanish:
        Kitroser, Félix Elias. Jazaria: el imperio olvidado por la historia. Córdoba, Argentina: Lerner, 2002.
        Ortiz, Alicia Dujovne. "El fantasma de los jázaros." La Nación (Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 14, 1999).

In Swedish:
        Wyszomirska (Werbart), Bożena Irene. "Religion som enande politisk-social länk - exemplet: det Kazariska riket." In Arkeologi och Religion: Rapport från arkeologidagarna 16-18 januari 1989, ed. Lars Larsson and Bożena Irene Wyszomirska, pp. 135-148. Lund, Sweden: University of Lund, 1989.

In Turkish:
        Atabinen, Kara Şemsi Reşit Saffet. Hazar Türkleri Avrupa devleti (VI-XII asir). Istanbul: Kaatcilik ve Matbaacilik Anonim Sirketi, 1934.
        Baştav, Şerif. "Hazar Kağanlığı Tarihi." In Tarihte Türk Devletleri, vol. 1, pp. 139-182. Ankara, Turkey: Ankara Üniversitesi, 1987.
        Demirtaş, Turgut. Tarihte Bıraktığı İzlerle: Hazar Devleti. Ankara, Turkey: Karakum Yayınları, 2018.
        Erman, Arif Cengiz. Hazar Kağanlığı: Selçuklu Devleti'nin Kuruluşuna Kadar Otuz Oğuzlar. Istanbul, Turkey: Sarmal Kitabevi, 2021.
        Golden, Peter Benjamin. "Giriş: Hazarlar." In Hazarlar ve Musevilik, ed. Osman Karatay, pp. 3-21. Çorum, Turkey: KaraM Yayınları, 2005.
        Karatay, Osman. "Hazarlar." In Doğu Avrupa Türk Tarihi, ed. Osman Karatay and Serkan Acar, pp. 335-408. Istanbul: Kitabevi Yayınları, 2013.
        Karatay, Osman. Hazarlar: Yahudi Türkler: Türk Yahudiler ve Ötekiler. Ankara, Turkey: Kripto Yayınları, 2014.
        Kuzgun, Şaban. Türklerde Yahudilik ve Doğu Avrupa Yahudilerinin menşei meselesi: Hazar ve Karay Türkleri. Edition Genisletilmis 2. baski. Ankara, Turkey: Şaban Kuzgun, 1993. Discusses Khazars, Karaites, East European Jews, and Jews in Turkey.
        Kuz'min-Yumanadi, Yakov F., and Kuleshov, Pavel V. "Hazarlar." In Türkler, vol. 2, eds. Hasan Celâl Güzel, Kemal Çiçek, and Salim Koca, pp. 464-472. Ankara, Turkey: Yeni Türkiye, 2002.
        Kuz'min-Yumanadi, Yakov F., and Kuleshov, Pavel V. "Çuvaşlar ve Etnik Oluşumları." In Türkler, vol. 2, eds. Hasan Celâl Güzel, Kemal Çiçek, and Salim Koca, pp. 491-496. Ankara, Turkey: Yeni Türkiye, 2002. About connections between the Khazars and the Chuvash.
        Özcan, Altay Tayfun. Hazar Kağanlığı ve Etrafındaki Dünya. Istanbul: Kronik Kitap, 2019.
        Özcan, Altay Tayfun. Hazarlar. Istanbul: Selenge Yayınları, 2021.
        Özgün, Pınar. Hazarlar - Kayıp Kavim. Istanbul: Cinius Yayınları, 2013.
        Taşağıl, Ahmet. "Hazarlar." In TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi, vol. 17, pp. 116-120. Istanbul, 1998.
        Yücel, Muallâ Uydu. "Hazar Hakanlığı." In Türkler, vol. 2, eds. Hasan Celâl Güzel, Kemal Çiçek, and Salim Koca, pp. 445-463. Ankara, Turkey: Yeni Türkiye, 2002.
        Zeki Velidi Togan, Ahmed. "Hazarlar." In İslam Ansiklopedisi, vol. 5, pp. 397-408. Istanbul, 1964.

In Ukrainian:
        Bubenok, Oleh Borisovich. Khozary v istoriyi Skhidnoyi Yevropy. Kyiv: Instytut skhodoznavstva im. A. Kryms'koho NAN Ukrayiny, 2019.
        Klyashtornyi, Sergey Grigorievich. "Aziys'kiy aspekt rann'oyi istorii xozar." Khazarskiy al'manax 2 (Kharkiv, 2004): 47-51.
        Komar, O. V. "Khozars'kyy Kahanat." In Entsyklopediya istoriyi Ukrayiny, vol. 10, ed. V. A. Smoliy. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 2013.

In Yiddish:
        Fainkind, Mosheh. Di Kuzerim un zeyer Yudish malkhe`s: a hekhst interesante historishe beshraybung nokh di nayeste kvelen bearbeyt. Pietrkov: Sh. Belkhatovski, 1909.
        Podolefsky, Sol. Di geshikhte fun di Kazarn un zeyer idishe melukhe in tsentral Eyrope. New York: Rokhman, 1971.
        Stuhlbach, Dov. "A folk fun sofek-yidn, Part I." Yiddish Forverts 105:31495 (April 30, 2004): 16.
        Stuhlbach, Dov. "A folk fun sofek-yidn, Part II." Yiddish Forverts 105:31496 (May 7, 2004): 14.
        Weiss, S. Di Yidishe melukhe fun di Kuzarim. Warsaw: Grosh-bibliotek, 1932.


In English:
        Sheynin, Hayim Y. "Khazars." In Reader's Guide to Judaism, ed. Michael Terry, pp. 339-340. London: Routledge, 2000.
        Weinryb, Bernard Dov. "The Khazars, an annotated bibliography." Studies in Bibliography and Booklore 6 (1963): 111-129 and 11 (1976): 57-74.
        Yarmolinsky, Avrahm, et al. The Khazars; A Bibliography Compiled by the Slavonic Division. New York: The New York Public Library, 1939. Reprinted from The Bulletin of The New York Public Library 42 (September 1938): 695-710.
        Yarmolinsky, Avrahm, et al. The Khazars: A Bibliography: 1940-1958. New York: The New York Public Library, 1959. Reprinted from The Bulletin of The New York Public Library 63:5 (May 1959): 237-241.

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