Bibliography of Khazar Studies, 1901-Present
Compiled by Kevin Alan Brook

Section 3: Archaeology

See also Section 10: Khazar Cities, Towns, Villages, and Fortresses and The Jews of Khazaria (especially Chapters 2, 4, and 5)


ARCHAEOLOGY: GENERAL TOPICS

In Bulgarian:
        Dimitrov, Dimitur. Prabulgarite po severnoto i zapadnoto Chernomorie kum vuprosa za tiakhnoto prisustvie i istoriya v dneshnite ruski zemi i roliata im pri obrazuvaneto na bulgarskata durzhava. Varna, Bulgaria: Georgi Balakov, 1987. Discusses artifacts from the Proto-Bulgarians, Khazars, Sabirs, Huns, etc.
        Iliev, Veselin. Kubrat. Sofia, Bulgaria: ET "Biskhim - Ilich Tsvetkov", 1998. Archaeology of the Bulgars and Khazars in the time of Khan Kubrat.

In English:
        Afanas'yev, Gennadii Evgenevich. "Where is the Archeological Evidence of the Existence of a Khazar State?" Anthropology and Archeology of Eurasia 57:3 (July 2018): 166-189.
        Bálint, Csanád. "Some Archaeological Addenda to P. Golden's Khazar Studies." Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 35:2-3 (1981): 397-412.
        Davis-Kimball, Jeannine. "Ongoing Archaeological Excavations in the Lower Don Region, Russia." Central Eurasian Studies Review 1:2 (Spring 2002): 11-13. About discoveries at Chastiye Kurgany.
        Gubaroff, George V. Cossacks and their Land, In the Light of New Data. Trans. John Nelson Washburn. Providence, RI: Cossack American National Alliance, 1985. Includes discussion of Khazar fortresses and agriculture.
        Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. "New Data on the History of the Khazars." Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 19 (1967): 61-103.
        Werbart, Bozena Irene. "Khazars or 'Saltovo-Majaki Culture'? Prejudices about Archaeology and Ethnicity." Current Swedish Archaeology 4 (1996): 199-221.
        Werbart, Bożena Irene. "Archaeology and Cultural Identity. Russia-Crimea-Khazars. New Archaeological Discoveries and Theories." In Studia z Dziejów Cywilizacji: Studia ofiarowane Profesorowi Jerzemu Gąssowskiemu w Pięćdziestiątą Rocznicę Pracy Naukowej, pp. 241-248. Warsaw: Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 1998.

In Italian:
        Aybabin, A. I. "I Bulgari e i Cazari." In Dal mille al mille: tesori e popoli del Mar Nero, ed. E. A. Arslan and C. Della Porta, around pp. 173-175. Milan, Italy: Electa, 1995. Archaeological treasures from the Black Sea region.

In Russian:
        Afanas'yev, Gennadii Evgenevich. "Murav'yevskii klad (k probleme onoguro-bulgaro-khazarskikh migratsii v lesostep')." Sovietskaya Arkheologiya (1987) No. 1: 193-202.
        Firsov, Mikhail Aleksandrovich. "Khazarskiy kostyum i zashchitnoye vooruzheniye IX v. po materialam izobrazitel'nykh istochnikov." In Aktual'nye voprosy arkheologii, etnografii i istorii (k 30-letiyu osnovaniya kafedry arkheologii, etnografii i regional'noy istorii): sbornik materialov Vserossiyskoy nauchnoy konferentsii (FGBOUVO "Chuvashskiy gosudarstvenniy universitet im. I.N. Ul'yanova", Cheboksary, 12 noyabrya 2019 g.), pp. 113-123. Cheboksary, Russia: Sreda, 2019. Comparative analysis of 9th-century Khazar clothing and protective gear.
        Flyorov, Valerii Sergeevich. 'Goroda' i 'zamki' Khazarskogo kaganata. Arkheologicheskaya real'nost'. Moscow: Mosty kul'tury and Jerusalem: Gesharim, 2011.
        Flyorov, Valerii Sergeevich. "V poiskakh khazar na poseleniyakh i v krepostyakh." In Vostochnaya yevropav drevnostii srednevekov'ye: rannie etapy urbanizatsii - XXXI Chteniya pamyati chlena-korrespondenta AN SSSR V.T. Pashuto, 17-19 aprelya 2019 g.: materialy konferentsii, ed. E. A. Melnikov, pp. 254-259. Moscow: Institut vseobshchey istorii RAN, 2019. On settlements and fortresses in Khazaria.
        Flyorova, Valentina Yevgen'ievna. Reznaya kost yugo-vostoka Yevropy IX-XII vekov: iskusstvo i remeslo: po materialam Sarkela-Beloi Vezhi iz kollektsii Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha. Saint Petersburg: Aleteiia, 2001. About bone and antler carving at Sarkel and other parts of southeastern Europe from the 9th-12th centuries.
        Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. Ritmy Evrazii: epokhu i tsivilizatsii. Moscow: Ekopros, 1993. The essay "Gde ona. Khazariya?" ["Where Was She, the Country Khazaria?"] by Lev Nikolaevich Gumilev and B. I. Kuznetsov is contained within this book, and was originally published in Nedelya (June 7-13, 1964) No. 24.
        Koloda, Vladimir Vasil'ovich. "Novye materialy k probleme izucheniya slavyano-khazarskix otnosheniy (po pamyatnikam Severskogo Dontsa)." Vostochnoyevropeskiy arkheologicheskiy zhurnal (Kiev) 6(13) (November-December 2001). Interpretation of cultural relations between East Slavs and Khazars based upon archaeological finds in the Severski Donets region.
        Kryganov, A. V. "Krupneyshey punkt (gorod) Khazarii." Vostochnoyevropeskiy arkheologicheskiy zhurnal (Kiev) 1(8) (January-February 2001). 20th-century archaeological research of cities in Khazaria.
        Magomedov, Murad Gadgievich. Obrazovaniye Khazarskogo kaganata: po materialam arkheologicheskikh issledovanii i pis'mennym dannym. Moscow: Nauka, 1983. Focuses on the archaeology of the North Caucasus, especially Christian sites.
        Mandzhieva, Vlada Vladimirovna and Sharmandzhieva, Tsagana Vladimirovna. "Arkheozoologicheskiy material iz pogrebeniy khazarskogo vremeni kurgannoy gruppy Dyuker." Byulleten' Kalmytskogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN No. 4 of 2019 (2019): 115-134. Discusses animals in Khazar-era burials in Kalmykia.
        Mikheev, Vladimir Kuz'mich. Podon'e v sostave Xazarskogo kaganata. Khar'kov: Izd-vo pri Khar'kovskom gos. universitete izdatel'skogo obyedineniya "Vyshcha shkola", 1985.
        Motsia, Aleksandr Petrovich. Khazary. Nikolaev: P "Vozmozhnosti Kimmerii", 1997. Antiquities from the Ukrainian steppe.
        Naxapetyan (Flyorova), Valentina Yevgen'ievna. "Obraz mira v izobrazitel'nom iskusstve Xazarii." Rossiyskaya arkheologiya 4 (1994).
        Nikolayenko, Anatolii Grigorevich. Severo-zapadnaya Xazariya ili Donskaya Rus - drevnosti prioskolskoy lesostepi v zametkax krayeveda. Volokonovka, Russia: Belgorodskii oblastnoi kraevedcheskii muzei, 1991. Discusses Khazars, Alans, and antiquities from the Don River valley.
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. "Khazarskie problemy v arkheologii." Sovietskaya arkheologiya (1990) No. 2: 77-91.
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. "Istoriya odnogo xazarskogo poseleniya." Sovietskaya arkheologiya (1993) No. 2: 48-69.
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. Ocherki Khazarskoy Arkheologii. Jerusalem and Moscow: Gesharim, 1999.
        Rybakov, Boris Aleksandrovich. [Russians and Khazars]. In Sbornik B. D. Grekovu, pp. 76-88. 1952.
        Rybakov, Boris Aleksandrovich. [Title?] Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, historical series 9:3 (May 1952): 309-310.
        Rybakov, Boris Aleksandrovich. "K voprosu o roli khazarskogo kaganata v istorii Rusi." Sovietskaya arkheologiya 18 (1953): 128-150. Rybakov, a Russian nationalist, claims that the Khazars had little impact upon the development of Kievan Rus.
        Smirnov, K. F. [The burial of Aghach-kala near Buynaksk as a record of Khazar culture in Daghestan]. Kratkie soobshcheniya instituta mater. kultury 38 (1951): 113-119.


ARCHAEOLOGY: AGRICULTURE

In English:
        Cross-referenced: Noonan, Thomas Schaub. "The Khazar Economy." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 9 (1995-1997): 253-318.

In Russian:
        Cross-referenced: Lyapushkin, I. I. "Pamyatniki saltovo-mayatskoy kul'tury v basseyne reki Dona." Materiali i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR (1958) No. 62: 117-125.
        Koloda, Vladimir Vasil'ovich, and Gorbanenko, Sergei Anatoliyovich. "K voprosu o srednevekovom zemledelii (po materialam Verkhnesaltovskogo arkheologicheskogo kompleksa)." Stratum+ no. 3 (2001–2002): 448-465. About agriculture in Upper Saltov.
        Koloda, Vladimir Vasil'ovich, and Gorbanenko, Sergei Anatoliyovich. "Zemledel'cheskii kompleks rannesrednevekovogo naseleniya Verxnego Saltova." Khazarskiy al'manax 2 (Kharkiv, 2004): 161-179. About farming and grain-processing tools and foods found at an agricultural complex at Upper Saltov.
        Zakhoder, Boris Nikolaevich. Kaspiiskii svod svedenii Vostochnoi Yevrope. Vol. 1. Moscow: Izd-vo Vostochnoi lit-ry, 1962. Includes the sections Khazariya i khazary, Bor'ba za Veru, Itil'. Nachatki gorodskoy zhizni, and Kagan i bek.

In Ukrainian:
        Koloda, Vladimir Vasil'ovich, and Gorbanenko, Serhiy Anatoliyovich. Sil's'ke hospodarstvo naselennya Khozars'kogo kahanatu v lisostepoviy zoni. Kyyiv: Akademperiodyka, 2018. Translated into English under the title Agriculture in the Forest-Steppe Region of Khazaria, translated by Maryna Sergeyeva, published in Leiden, Netherlands by Brill Academic Publishers in 2020. On the Saltovian culture's agriculture in 8th-10th century Khazaria's forest-steppe zone.


ARCHAEOLOGY: BURIAL CUSTOMS

In Russian:
        Aksyonov, Viktor Stepanovich. "Novye pogrebeniya v dromose na Verkhne-Saltovskom IV katakombnom mogilnike." In Laurea I. Antichnyi mir i srednie veka. Chteniya pamiati professora Vladimira Ivanovicha Kadeeva. Materialy, ed. S. I. Posokhov and S. B. Sorochan, pp. 12-17. Kharkiv, 2015. On Saltovian catacomb burials.
        Aksyonov, Viktor Stepanovich. "Saltovskie krematsionnye kompleksy s konskimi nachel'nikami iz basseina Severskogo Dontsa." Khazarskii al'manakh 4 (2005): 182-198. Saltovian cremations with horse gear in the northern Donets region.
        Aksyonov, Viktor Stepanovich. "K voprosu o yedinstve nositeley krematsionnogo obryada Saltovskogo vremeni Podontsov'ya i Severo-Zapadnogo Kavkaza." Khazarskiy al'manakh 15 (2017): 17-36. On Saltovian cremation burials.
        Aksyonov, Viktor Stepanovich. "Neobychnyy predmet kul'taiz zakhoroneniya Verkhne-Saltovskogo katakombnogo mogil'nika." In Khar'kovskiy istoriko-arkheologicheskiy sbornik, vol. 20, pp. 16-28. Khar'kov: Machulin, 2017. Alan burials at Upper Saltov's catacomb cemetery, including an object of worship.
        Aksyonov, Viktor Stepanovich and Koloda, Vladimir Vasil'ovich. "Bogatiy veshchevoy kompleks bliz Staroy Pokrovki na Kharkovshchine." Khazarskiy al'manakh 15 (2017): 37-57. On artifacts recovered from the cremation burial ground at Old Pokrovka and their burial ritualism.
        Aksyonov, Viktor Stepanovich and Koloda, Vladimir Vasil'ovich. "Saltovskiy pominal'nyy kompleks voina-vsadnika iz Staroy Pokrovki v Khar'kovskoy oblasti." Khazarskiy al'manakh 16 (2018-2019): 29-50. Discusses burial ritualism related to objects of 2 Saltovian equestrian warriors found at a cremation burial ground at Old Pokrovka.
        Aksyonov, Viktor Stepanovich and Volovik, S. I. "Noviy saltovskiy mogil'nik v verxnem Podonech'e." Donskaya Arkheologiya No. 3-4 (1999): 34-40. New Saltovo cemetery in the upper reaches of the Donets.
        Aybabin, A. I. "Pogrebenie khazarskogo voina." Sovietskaya arkheologiya (1985) No. 3: around pp. 191-202.
        Flyorov, Valerii Sergeevich. Pogrebal'nye obriady na severe Khazarii: Mayatskii mogil'nik. Volgograd: Peremina, 1993. Burial customs along the Don River.
        Flyorova, Valentina Yevgen'ievna. "Khazarskie kurgany s rovikami: Central'naya Aziya ili Vostochnaya Yevropa?" Rossiyskaya arkheologiya (2001) No. 2. About bone details of Khazar weapons.
        Flyorova, Valentina Yevgen'ievna. "Problemy issledovaniya yamnix i kurgannix mogil'nikov xazarskogo vremenina Nizhnem Donu." Khazarskiy al'manax 1 (Kharkiv, 2002): 169-188. About Khazar-era pit and kurgan burials in the lower Don region.
        Koloda, Vladimir Vasil'ovich. "Issledovaniya rannesrednevekovykh katakombnykh pogrebenii bliz s. Verkhnii Saltov v 1996 g." Khazarskii al'manakh 3 (2004): 213-241. About catacombs near Upper Saltov.
        Kruglov, Yevgenii V. "Khazarskie pogrebeniya v basseyne reki Ilovli." Rossiyskaya arkheologiya (1992) No. 4: around pp. 176-183.
        P'iankov, A. V. and Tarabanov, V. A. "Krematsionnye pogrebeniya Kubani i Podon'ia saltovskogo vremeni: opyt sopostavleniia." In Drevnosti Yuga Rossii. Pamiati A.G. Atavina, ed. Gennadii Evgenevich Afanas'yev, pp. 275-295. Moscow: TAUS, 2008. On Saltovian cremations in the Kuban and Don regions.
        Svistun, Gennadiy Yevgen'evich and Holubiev, Andrii M. "Krematsionnyy mogil'nik Saltovo-Mayatskoy kul'tury v pgt Pechenegi Khar'kovskoy oblasti." Khazarskiy al'manakh 15 (2017): 199-205. About burned bones and artifacts from a Saltovian cremation burial ground near Pechenihy and the Seversky Donets river.

In Ukrainian:
        Holubiev, A. M. "Saltovo-maiatskyi krematsiinyi mohylnyk bilia s. Babchanka na Kharkivshchyni." In V.K. Mikheyev: Uchni ta poslidovnyky do 80-richchia z dnia narodzhennia, ed. Viktor Stepanovich Aksyonov and Vladimir Vasil'ovich Koloda, pp. 30-41. Kharkiv, 2017. On Saltovian cremations.


ARCHAEOLOGY: COINAGE

In English:
        Album, Stephen. A Checklist of Islamic Coins, 2nd edition. Self-published by the author, 1998. The 2nd edition has a small section on Khazarian coins.
        Czapkiewicz, Maria. "Review of the Article of A.A. Bykov: O khazarskom chekane." Folia Orientalia 15 (1974): 306-310. Argues against Khazarian coinage.
        Czapkiewicz, Maria. "Some Remarks on the Imitations of Arabic Dirhams from the 8th to 10th Century Based on the Examination of Coin Metal." In Proceedings of the International Numismatic Symposium, eds. István Gedai and Katalin Biró-Sey, pp. 101-107. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1980.
        Kovalev, Roman K. "What Does Historical Numismatics Suggest About the Monetary History of Khazaria in the Ninth Century? - Question Revisited." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 13 (2004): 97-129. Consolidates evidence that the Khazars minted coins.
        Kovalev, Roman K. "Creating Khazar Identity through Coins: The Special Issue Dirhams of 837/8." In East Central and Eastern Europe in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Florin Curta, pp. 220-253. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2005. Discusses evidence that the Khazars minted coins and its implications for dating the Khazar conversion to Judaism.
        Lynn, Jonathan. "Viking Treasure Hoard Yields Astounding Finds." China Daily (June 24, 2002). About the Spillings coin hoard from Gotland, Sweden and a Khazar Jewish coin found there.
        Noonan, Thomas Schaub. "Did the Khazars Possess a Monetary Economy? An Analysis of the Numismatic Evidence." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 2 (1982): 219-267.
        Noonan, Thomas Schaub. "What Does Historical Numismatics Suggest About the History of Khazaria in the Ninth Century?" Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 3 (1983): 265-281.
        Noonan, Thomas Schaub. "Khazaria as an Intermediary between Islam and Eastern Europe in the Second Half of the Ninth Century: The Numismatic Perspective." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 5 (1985): 179-204.
        Pritsak, Omeljan. The Origins of the Old Rus' Weights and Monetary Systems: Two Studies in Western Eurasian Metrology and Numismatics in the Seventh to Eleventh Centuries. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, Harvard University Press, 1998. Discusses the coins and weights and measures of silver and gold in Khazaria, Kievan Rus, and Volga Bulgaria, and the meanings of various runes and symbols.
        Rispling, Gert O. "A List of Coin Finds Relevant to the Study of Early Islamic-Type Imitations." Russian History/Histoire russe 28:1-4 (2001): 325-340. Festschrift in Honor of Thomas S. Noonan, Vol. 1, eds. Roman K. Kovalev and Heidi M. Sherman.
        Shake, Glen. "Secrets of the Khazars." Numismatics International 34:7 (July 1999): 162-163. About the imitation coins made by Khazars.
        Shake, Glen. Coins of the Khazar Empire. Allen, TX: Trimillennium Publishers, 2000. A summary of controversies surrounding the question of Khazar coinage, accompanied by illustrations and diagrams.
        Tameanko, Marvin. "Coins of the Khazars." The Shekel 38:2 (March-April 2005): 5-11.

In French:
        Truc, Olivier. "Une pièce au puzzle kazhar." Libération (Paris, July 16, 2002): 26-27. About a Khazar Jewish coin found in the Spillings coin hoard from Gotland, Sweden.

In German:
        Zambaur, Eduard Karl Max von. "Orientalische Münzen in Nord- und Ost-Europa." Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien 5 (Vienna, 1902): around 367-378.
        Zambaur, Eduard Karl Max von. "Die Münzen der Chasaren." Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien 8 (Vienna, 1911): around 313-315.

In Kazan Tatar:
        Mukhammediev, A. Boryngy khazar hem bolgar-tatar akchalary. Kazan, 1986.

In Russian:
        Bykov, Aleksey Andreevich. "O khazarskom chekane VIII-IX vv." Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha, Numizmatika 4:12 (Leningrad, 1971): 26-36. Argues in favor of Khazarian coinage.
        Bykov, Aleksey Andreevich. "Iz istorii denezhnogo obrashcheniya Khazarii v VIII i IX vv." In Vostochnye istochniki po istorii narodov yugo-vostochnoy i centralnoy Yevropy, ed. Anna Stepanovna Tveritinova, Vol. 3, pp. 26-71. Moscow: Nauka, 1974. Argues in favor of Khazarian coinage.
        Semyonov, A. I. "Vizantiyskie monety iz pogrebenii khazarskogo vremeni na Donu." Problemy arkheologii 2 (1978): 180-183.


ARCHAEOLOGY: KHAZARIAN CRAFTS (POTTERY AND METALWARE)

In English:
        Cross-referenced: Noonan, Thomas Schaub. "The Khazar Economy." Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 9 (1995-1997): 253-318.

In Russian:
        Darkevich, Vladislav Petrovich. "Khudozhestvennyi Metall Vostoka VIII-XIII vv." In Prizvedeniya Vostochnoy Torevtiki na Territorii Yevropeyskoy Chasti SSSR i Zaural'ia. Moscow, 1976.
        Flyorov, Valerii Sergeevich. "O kleymakh saltovo-mayatskoy loshchenoy keramiki." In Arkheologiya i voprosy etnicheskoy istorii Severnogo Kavkaza, pp. 94-102. Groznyi, Russia, 1979.
        Ivanov, A. A., Kopylov, V. P., and Naumenko, S. A. "Poyasnye nabory iz kurganov khazarskogo vremeni mezhdurech'ya Dona i Sala." Donskaya Arkheologiya No. 1 (2000): 81-90. Belt sets of Khazar-era burial mounds located between the Don and Sal rivers.
        Ivanov, A. A., and Kopylov, V. P. "Bronzovie zerkala iz rannesrednevekovix podkurgannix pogrebeniy Nizhnego Dona i Volgo-Donskogo mezhdurech'ya." Donskaya Arkheologiya No. 3-4 (2001): 126-130. Bronze mirrors from the Volga-Don regions.
        Koloda, Vladimir Vasil'ovich. "Saltovskoye goncharnoye proizvodstvo (po materialam remeslennogo tsentra v urochishche Roganina)." In Stepi Yevropy v Epokhu Srednevekov'ya: Khazarskoye vremya, vol. 2?, ed. A. V. Yevgelevskii, pp. 219-232. Donetsk, Ukraine: Institut Arkheologii NAN Ukrainy/Donetskii Natsional'nyi Universitet, 2001. On Saltovian pottery production.
        Krasil'nikov, K. I. "Izdeliya iz kosti saltovskoy kul'tury." Sovietskaya Arkheologiya (1979) No. 2: 77-91.
        Krasil'nikov, K. I. "Novye dannye o goncharnom proizvodstve v saltovskogo vremya na Severnom Dontse." Kratkie Soobshcheniya Instituta Arkheologii Akademii Nauk SSSR 160 (Moscow, 1979): 60-69.
        Kravchenko, Eduard Ye. and Kul'baka, V. K. "O nakhodke sosuda s graffiti v Mariupole." Arkheologicheskii al'manakh No. 21 (2010): 386-395. Khazar-era artifacts found at Mariupol, including a pot bearing images of a Jewish menorah and a Christian cross.
        Kravchenko, Eduard Ye. and Shamrai, A. V. "Pogrebal'nye kompleksy khazarskogo vremeni s baklagami s territorii Donetskoy oblasti." Donskaya Arkheologiya No. 3-4 (2000): 70-82. Khazar-era burial sites with flasks from the Donetsk region.
        Makarova, T. I., and Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. "Poyas znatnogo voina iz Sarkela." Sovietskaya arkheologiya No. 2 (1983): 62-77. About Khazar belts.
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. "Sosudy s zoomorynymi chertami v saltovo-mayatskikh drevnostyakh." In Kavkaz i Rus', pp. 205-212. Moscow, 1973.
        Silchenko, T. N., and Sorokin, S. S. "Rentgenograficheskie issledovaniya zheleznikh izdeliy iz Sarkela-Beloy vyezhi." Materiali i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR (1959) No. 75: around pp. 200-201.
        Cross-referenced: Krasil'nikov, K. I. "Goncharnaya masterskaya saltovo-mayatskoy kul'tury." Sovietskaya Arkheologiya (1976) No. 3: 267-278.

In Ukrainian:
        Gopak, V. D., and Sukhobokov, Oleg Vasilevich. "Pro saltiv'ske zhalizoorobne remeslo." Arkheologiya 25 (1975): 60-70.
        Mikheev, Vladimir Kuz'mich, Fomyn, L. D., and Stepans'ka, R. B. "Nozhi saltivs'koyi kul'tury ta yikh vyrobnistvo." Arkheologiya 9 (1973): 90-99.
        Smilenko, A. T. Slov'iany ta yikh susidy v Stepovomu Podniprov'i: II-XIII st. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 1975. See pages 118-157.


ARCHAEOLOGY: KHAZARIAN WEAPONRY

In Russian:
        Berezhanskii, V. G., and Pecheniuk, I. S. Metallurgiya, metalloobrabotka i proizvodstvo vooruzheniya v Khazarskom kaganate. Kiev: Ukrainskii institut voennoi istorii, 2002. About Khazar weapons found in Ukraine.
        Flyorova, Valentina Yevgen'ievna. "Kostyanye detaly lukov, kolchanov i naluchiy Beloy Vyezhi." In Stepi Yevropy v Epokhu Srednevekov'ya. Donetsk, 2000.
        Komar, A. V. and Sukhobokov, Oleg Vasilevich. "Vooruzhenie i voennoe delo Khazarskogo kaganata." Vostochnoyevropeskiy arkheologicheskiy zhurnal (Kiev) 2:3 (March-April 2000).


ARCHAEOLOGY: SALTOVO-MAYAKI CULTURE

In Hungarian:
        Bálint, Csanád. "A szaltovo-majaki kultúra avar és magyar kapcsolatairól." Archaeológiai Értesitõ 102 (Budapest, 1975): around pp. 55-56.

In Russian:
        Aksyonov, Viktor Stepanovich. "Pugovitsy iz rakoviny mollyuskov u alanskogo naseleniya Saltov-Mayatskoy kul'tury (po materialam katakombnykh mogil'nikov basseyna Severskogo Dontsa)." Khazarskii al'manakh 13 (2015): 64-81. Alan amulets from catacomb cemeteries in the Seversky Donets Basin.
        Aybabin, A. I. "Saltovskie poyasnye nabory iz Krima." Sovietskaya Arkheologiya (1977) No. 1: pp. 225-239.
        Baranov, Igor' Avenirovich. Tavrika v epokhu rannego srednevekov'ia: Saltovo-mayatskaya kul'tura. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1990. Excavated materials from Crimea.
        Flyorov, Valerii Sergeevich. "O pervykh publikatsiyakh mestonakhozheniy Bashanta. Neizvestnaya vizantiyskaya missiya v Khazariyu?" Khazarskiy al'manakh 15 (2017): 281-295. Finds from two medieval Saltovian settlements at Bashanta in Kalmykia.
        Gadlo, Aleksandr Vil'iamovich. "Saltovo-mayatskie (Protobolgarskie) pamyatniki vostochnoy chasti Stavropol'ya." In Krupnovskie chteniya po arkheologii Severnogo Kavkaza, pp. 63-64. Moscow, 1980.
        Koloda, Vladimir Vasil'ovich. "Rannesrednevekovye zhilishcha Verxnego Saltova." In Problemy istorii i arxeologii Ukrainy (Tez dokl. nauch. konf.), pp. 70-71. Khar'kov, 1999.
        Koloda, Vladimir Vasil'ovich. "Unikal'niy zhilishchno-khozyaystvenniy kompleks Saltovskioy kul'tury na Selishche Mokhnach-P." Khazarskii al'manakh 13 (2015): 111-129. On the Saltovian "Mokhnakh-P" settlement of the 8th-9th centuries.
        Koloda, Vladimir Vasil'ovich. "Khozyaystvennye kompleksy Saltovskogo vremeni na Selishche Mokhnach-P." Khazarskii al'manakh 14 (2016): 135-163.
        Krasil'nikov, K. I. "Goncharnaya masterskaya saltovo-mayatskoy kul'tury." Sovietskaya Arkheologiya (1976) No. 3: 267-278.
        Krasil'nikov, K. I. "Metallurgicheskiy kompleks saltovo-mayatskoy kul'tury na reke Myus." In Teoriya i metodika issledovaniy arxeologicheskix pamyatnikov lesostepnoy zoni. Lipetsk, 1992.
        Lyapushkin, I. I. "Pamyatniki saltovo-mayatskoy kul'tury v basseyne reki Dona." Materiali i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR (1958) No. 62: 117-125.
        Pletnyova, Svetlana Aleksandrovna. Ot kocheviy k gorodam. Saltovo-mayatskaya kul'tura. Moscow: Nauka, 1967.
        Ponomarev, L. Yu. "Odnokamerniye postroyki Saltovo-Mayatskikh poseleniy Kerchenskogo poluostrova." Khazarskii al'manakh 13 (2015): 193-233. Saltovian houses on the Kerch Peninsula.
        Romanchuk, A. I., and Omel'kova, L. A. "Srednevekovye poselenie na levom beregu reki Bel'bek." In Sotsial'noe razvitie Vizantii, pp. 94-104. Sverdlovsk, Russia, 1979.
        Rudakov, V. E. "Elementy saltovo-mayatskoy kul'tury na posade baklinskogo gorodishcha." In Sotsial'noe razvitie Vizantii, pp. 105-111. Sverdlovsk, Russia, 1979.
        Semyonov, Alexander I. "Romanovskoye pogrebenie i donskie pamyatniki predsaltovskoy kul'tury khazarskogo vremeni." In Problemy khronologii arkheologicheskikh pamyatnikov stepnoy zony Severnogo Kavkaza, ed. Vladimir Iakovlevich Kiyashko, pp. 98-102. Rostov-on-Don: Izdatel'stvo Rostovskogo universiteta, 1983.
        Suprenkov, A. A., Naumenko, V. Ye., and Ponomarov, L. Yu. "Poseleniye VIII-X vv. Gora Chirkova 1 na Tamanskom poluostrove (kratkiy obzor po rezul'tatam raskopok 2015 g.)." Khazarskiy al'manakh 15 (2017): 236-280. About an 8th-10th century Saltovian settlement on Mount Chirkov on the Taman Peninsula.
        Vinokurov, N. I. and Ponomaryov, L. Yu. "Saltovo-Mayatskoye poseleniye na gorodishche Artezian (kratkiy obzor po rezul'tatam issledovaniy 1989-2010 gg." Khazarskii al'manakh 14 (2016): 82-124. About the Saltovian settlement at Artezian on the Kerch Peninsula.
        Vladimirov, Sergey I. "Nagrudnyye ukrasheniya saltovo-mayatskoy kul'tury: khronologicheskiy aspekt." In Trudy Voronezhskogo oblastnogo krayevedcheskogo muzeya, No. 3: Materialy mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii 'I Zverevskiye chteniya – sovremennoye krayevedeniye: istoricheskiy, ekologo-prirodnyy i etnokul'turnyy aspekty' (g. Voronezh, 20-21 sentyabrya 2019 g.), pp. 106-110. Voronezh, 2019. About Saltovian women's breast jewelry.
        Cross-referenced: Magomedov, Murad Gadgievich. "Khazarskie poseleniya v Dagestane." Sovietskaya arkheologiya (1975) No. 2: 202-216.

In Ukrainian:
        Koloda, Vladimir Vasil'ovich. "Slov'yans'ke zhitlo na Verxn'omu Saltovi." Zbirnik nauko-vix prats': istorichni nauky." In Naukoviy visnik Xarkivs'kogo derzhavnogo pedagogichnogo universitetu, vol. 2, pp. 15-20. Kharkiv, 1999.
        Koloda, Vladimir Vasil'ovich. "Zhitla rann'ogo seredn'ovichchya u Verxn'omu Saltovi." Arxeologiya (2000) No. 4: 40-54.
        Starik, Oleksandr V. and Aksyonov, Viktor Stepanovich [The Artefacts from the 'Hiding Place' of the Saltov Period in the Collection of the Dnipro National Historical Yavornytskyi Museum]. Arkheolohiya 4 (2018): 114-126. Excavated materials from a cremation burial ground near Kytsivka village.


ARCHAEOLOGY: YURTS/GERS (PORTABLE TENTS)

In Russian:
        Flyorov, Valerii Sergeevich. Rannesrednevekovye yurtobraznye zhilishcha vostochnoi Yevropy. Moscow: Institut arkheologii RAN, 1996. Discusses yurts in historical eastern Europe.


ARCHAEOLOGY: KHAZARS IN AZERBAIJAN

In Russian:
        Lessen, A. A. "Raskopki bol'shogo kurgana v urochishche Uch-tepe." Materialy i issledovaniya po arkheologii 125 (Moscow, 1965): 173-182. Examines a Khazarian ducal grave in Uch-Tepe, Azerbaijan that is probably connected with the Tiflis campaign of 626/628.


ARCHAEOLOGY: KHAZARS IN BIRKA (SWEDEN)

In English:
        Cross-referenced: Werbart, Bożena Irene. "Archaeology and Cultural Identity. Russia-Crimea-Khazars. New Archaeological Discoveries and Theories." In Studia z Dziejów Cywilizacji: Studia ofiarowane Profesorowi Jerzemu Gąssowskiemu w Pięćdziestiątą Rocznicę Pracy Naukowej, pp. 241-248. Warsaw: Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 1998.

In German:
        Arbman, Holger. "Einige orientalische Gegenstände in den Birka-Funden." Acta Archaeologica 13 (1942): 303-315.


ARCHAEOLOGY: KHAZARS IN HUNGARY, TRANSYLVANIA, SERBIA

In English:
        Bunardzhich, Radovan. "Celarevo - Necropolis and Settlement of the VIIIth-IXth Century." In Xazary: Vtoroi Mezhdunarodnii kollokvium: tezisy, ed. Vladimir Iakovlevich Petrukhin and Artyom M. Fedorchuk, pp. 19-21? Moscow: Tsentr nauchnyx rabotnikov i prepodavatelei iudaiki v vuzakh "Sefer", Evreiskii universitet v Moskve, and Institut Slavyanovedeniya Rossiiskoy akademii nauk, 2002.
        Kiss, Attila. "11th Century Khazar Rings from Hungary with Hebrew Letters and Signs." Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 22 (1970): 341-348. Examines a ring from Ellend.
        Scheiber, Alexander (Sándor). Jewish Inscriptions in Hungary from the 3rd Century to 1686. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1983. Includes short sections on the Chelarevo and Ellend gravesites.
        Soric, Ante, et al., eds. Jews in Yugoslavia: Muzejski prostor, Zagreb, Jezuitski trg 4. Trans. Mira Vlatkovic and Sonia Wild-Bicanic. Zagreb, Croatia: MGC, 1989. English translation of the Serbo-Croatian book Zidovi na tlu Jugoslavije: Muzejski prostor Zagreb, 14.IV.-12.VI.1988, which was published in 1988 by Muzejski prostor. See page 28 of the English edition for discussion of Avar and/or Khazar graves of pagans and Jews at Chelarevo (some containing inscribed Hebrew words and Jewish symbols) and pages 21-22 for photographs of two Jewish stones.

In Hebrew:
        (Author?) Taalumat ha-menorot mi-Ts'elarevo (The Enigma of the Menoroth from Celarevo). Tel Aviv: Bet ha-tefutsot al shem Nahum Goldman, 1984.

In Serbian:
        Bunardzhich, Radovan. Menore iz Celareva. Belgrade: Savez jevrejskih opstina Jugoslavije, 1980. Museum exhibition guide for the menorah images from Chelarevo.

In Russian:
        Erdélyi, István. "Kabari (Kavari) v Karpatskom Basseyne." Sovietskaya Arkheologiya 4 (1983): 174-181. Proposes that Khazarian Kabars of the Jewish faith were buried at Chelarevo.


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